Skip to main content

Table 1 Study population baseline characteristics overall and by status of GWG according to the 2009 IOM guidelines

From: Gestational weight gain during the second and third trimesters and adverse pregnancy outcomes, results from a prospective pregnancy cohort in urban Tanzania

Baseline characteristics Entire dataset
(n = 1230)
2009 IOM GWG guidelinesa
  Inadequate GWG
(n = 517, 42.0%)
Adequate GWG
(n = 270, 22%)
Excessive GWG
(n = 443, 36%)
Mean (SD)  
Age at baseline (years) 24.1 (4.2) 23.9 (4.4) 24.1 (3.8) 24.2 (4.2)
Weight at baseline 59.9 (11.7) 59.1 (12.0) 58.3 (10.5) 61.8 (11.8)
Height at baseline (cm) 156.2 (6.1) 156.0 (6.3) 155.8 (5.8) 156.7 (5.9)
Gestational age at baseline (weeks) 17.9 (4.3) 18.1 (4.5) 17.5 (4.2) 18.0 (4.1)
Total number of antenatal visitsb 5 (2–9) 5 (2–8) 5 (2–8) 5 (2–9)
n (%)  
Treatment (iron supplement) 601 (48.9) 247 (47.8) 137 (50.7) 221 (49.9)
Primigravida 706 (57.4) 285 (55.1) 150 (55.6) 271 (61.2)
Marital status (married) 979 (79.6) 420 (81.2) 219 (81.1) 345 (77.9)
BMI at baseline (kg/m2) 24.5 (4.6) 24.3 (4.7) 24.1 (4.2) 25.1 (4.5)
BMI at 14 weeks of gestation (kg/m2) 24.0 (4.3)d 23.5 (4.4) 23.5 (4.0) 24.9 (4.4)
Education status     
 0–4 years 61 (5.0) 25 (4.8) 14 (5.2) 22 (5.0)
 5–7 years 645 (52.4) 286 (55.3) 147 (54.4) 212 (47.9)
 8–11 years 343 (27.9) 136 (26.3) 75 (27.8) 132 (29.8)
 ≥ 12 years 181 (14.7) 70 (13.5) 34 (12.6) 77 (17.4)
Occupation status     
 Unemployed 619 (50.3) 274 (53.0) 134 (49.6) 211 (47.6)
 Unskilled or informal 381 (31.0) 154 (29.8) 89 (33.0) 138 (31.2)
 Skilled 230 (18.7) 89 (17.2) 47 (17.4) 94 (21.2)
 History of prior complicationsc 1–91 (15.5) 49 (18.2) 78 (15.1) 64 (14.5)
  1. Institute of Medicine (IOM), gestational weight gain (GWG), standard deviation (SD), body mass index (BMI)
  2. aThe IOM provided recommended ranges of weekly GWG rate during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters (kg/week) by pre-pregnancy BMI status: 0.44––0.58 kg/week for underweight, 0.35–0.50 kg/week for normal weight, 0.23–0.33 kg/week for overweight, and 0.17–0.27 kg/week for obese. BMI categories were defined according to the WHO standard BMI guidelines
  3. bMedian (interquartile range) were presented
  4. cHistory of prior complications was defined as reporting any of the following: cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, weight loss in previous year, ever having a low-birth-weight baby or non-live birth (fetal death, abortion, miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy) among non-primigravida
  5. dImputed gestational weight at 14 weeks of gestation