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Table 2 Summary characteristics of GWG and pregnancy outcomes in the study population overall and by GWG status

From: Gestational weight gain during the second and third trimesters and adverse pregnancy outcomes, results from a prospective pregnancy cohort in urban Tanzania

Outcomes Entire dataset
(n = 1230)
2009 IOM GWG guidelinesa
  Inadequate GWG
(n = 517, 42.0%)
Adequate GWG
(n = 270, 22.0%)
Excessive GWG
(n = 443, 36.0%)
GWG-related outcomes  
Weight gain (kg), mean (SD) 6.3 (4.9) 2.8 (3.4) 6.9 (2.8) 10.1 (4.4)
Rate of weight gain in 2nd–3rd trimester (kg/week), mean (SD) 0.38 (0.32) 0.14 (0.21) 0.39 (0.09) 0.65 (0.28)
GWG adequacy, n (%)b     
 Inadequate GWG 553 (45.0) 456 (88.2) 82 (30.4) 15 (3.4)
 Adequate GWG 377 (30.6) 48 (9.3) 174 (64.4) 155 (35.0)
 Excessive GWG 300 (24.4) 13 (2.5) 14 (5.2) 273 (61.6)
Adverse pregnancy outcomes     
 Gestational age at delivery (weeks), mean (SD) 39.5 (3.3) 39.7 (3.6) 39.6 (2.7) 39.0 (3.3)
 Infant birth weight (kg), mean (SD) 3.1 (0.5) 3.1 (0.5) 3.2 (0.5) 3.2 (0.6)
 Low birth weight (< 2.5 kg), n (%) 92 (7.5) 40 (7.7) 15 (5.6) 37 (8.4)
 Preterm birth (< 37 weeks), n (%) 195 (15.9) 76 (14.7) 41 (15.2) 78 (17.6)
 SGA, n (%)c 199 (16.2) 101 (19.5) 40 (14.8) 58 (13.1)
 LGA, n (%)c 134 (10.9) 36 (7.0) 38 (14.0) 60 (13.5)
 Stillbirth, n (%)d 47 (3.8) 12 (2.3) 9 (3.3) 26 (5.9)
  1. Institute of Medicine (IOM), gestational weight gain (GWG), standard deviation (SD), small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA)
  2. aThe IOM provided recommended ranges of weekly GWG rate during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters (kg/week) by pre-pregnancy BMI status: 0.44–0.58 kg/week for underweight, 0.35–0.50 kg/week for normal weight, 0.23–0.33 kg/week for overweight, and 0.17–0.27 kg/week for obese. BMI categories were defined according to the WHO standard BMI guidelines
  3. bGWG adequacy was calculated based on the method described in Adu-Afarwuah, Seth, et al. "Maternal supplementation with small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements compared with multiple micronutrients, but not with iron and folic acid, reduces the prevalence of low gestational weight gain in semi-urban Ghana: a randomized controlled trial." The Journal of nutrition 147.4 (2017): 697–705
  4. cFor babies of the same gestational age (gender-specific), birthweight below the 10th percentile and above the 90th percentile was defined as SGA and LGA, respectively, based on the INTERGROWTH-21st reference chart
  5. dStillbirth was defined as fetal death at or after 20 weeks of gestation