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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies in the meta-analysis

From: Probiotics are a good choice for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trial

Reference Type of study Age
(Mean ± SD)
Sample size
(Intervention/Control)
Intervention Control Follow-up time Diagnosis criteria
Probiotic type Dosage Drug-delivery way Time Antibiotic type Dosage Drug-delivery way Time
Anukam et al., 2006 R, DB, PC 18–44 106 (49/57) L. rhamnosus gR-1,
L. reuteri RC-14
109 CFU × 2/d Take orally 30d Metronidazole 500 mg Take orally 7 days 30 d Nugent score 7–10
Metronidazole 500 mg × 2/d Take orally 7 d
Bradshaw et al., 2012 R, DB, PC 18–50 268 (133/135) L. acidophilus KS400  > 107 CFU Vaginally 12 d Placebo / Vaginally 12 days 3 m Nugent Score 7–10
metronidazole 400 mg × 2/d Take orally 7 d Metronidazole 400 mg Take orally 7 days
Cohen et al., 2020 R, DB, PC 30.7 ± 6.8/
31.4 ± 7.1
228 (133/64) L. crispatus CTV-05 2 × 109 CFU Vaginally 30 d Placebo / Vaginally 30 days 12 w Amsel’s criteria ≥ 3
metronidazole 0.75% Vaginally 5 d Metronidazole 0.75% Vaginally 5 days
Eriksson et al., 2005 R, DB, PC 32 (20–52)/
32 (18–53)
197 (91/96) L. gasseri,
L. casei rhamnosus,
L. fermentum
108 CFU Vaginally  > 5 d Placebo   Vaginally  > 5 days 28 d Amsel’s criteria ≥ 3
Clindamycin 100 mg Vaginally 3 d Clindamycin 100 mg Vaginally 3 days
Happel et al., 2020 R, OB 18–45 29 (18/11) L. acidophilus,
L. rhamnosus GG,
 ≥ 2 × 109
CFU
Take orally&Vaginally 15d Metronidazole 0.75% Vaginally 5 days 5 m Nugent score 7–10
metronidazole 0.75% Vaginally 5 d
Larsson et al., 2008 R, DB, PC  ≥ 18 100 (50/50) L. gasseri
L. rhamnosus
 ≥ 108–9 CFU Vaginally 10d Placebo / Vaginally 10 days 30 d Amsel’s criteria ≥ 3
Clindamycin 2% Vaginally 7 d Clindamycin 2% Vaginally 7 days
Laue et al., 2017 R, DB, PC 32.6 ± 11.2/
39.0 ± 12.3
34 (17/17) L. crispatus,
L. gasseri,
L. rhamnosus,
L. jensenii
107 CFU/ml × 2/d Orally 4 w Placebo / Orally 4 weeks 28 d Amsel’s criteria ≥ 3
Metronidazole 500 mg × 2/d Orally 7 d Metronidazole 500 mg × 2/d Orally 7 days
Marcone et al., 2008 R, NB 18–40 84 (42/42) L. rhamnosus  > 40,000 CFU Vaginally Once a week /2 m Metronidazole 500 mg × 2/d Orally 7 days 180 d Amsel’s criteria = 4
Metronidazole 500 mg × 2/d Orally 7 d
Marcone et al., 2010 R, DB 18–45 46 (23/23) L. rhamnosus 40,000 CFU Vaginally Once a week /6 m Metronidazole 500 mg × 2/d Orally 7 days 30 d Amsel’s criteria = 4
Metronidazole 500 mg × 2/d Orally 7 d
Martinez et al.,2009 R, DB, PC 30.0 ± 10.9/
30.3 ± 10.7
64 (32/32) L. rhamnosus GR-1,
L. reuteri RC-14
1 × 109 CFU Orally 28 d Placebo / Orally 28 d 28 d Amsel’s criteria ≥ 3 & Nugent score 7–10
Tinidazole 2 g Orally 28 d Tinidazole 2 g Orally 28 d
Ozmen et al., 1997b R, NB 18–53 210 (96/114) L. acidophilus 107–7 × 108 CFU Vaginally 12d Metronidazole 500 mg × 2/d Orally 7 days 22–35 d Amsel’s criteria ≥ 3
Metronidazole 500 mg × 2/d Orally 7 d
Petricevic et al., 2008 R, OB 18–45 171 (83/88) L. casei rhamnosus 109 CFU Vaginally 7d Clindamycin 300 mg × 2/d Orally 7 days 28 d Nugent score 7–10
Clindamycin 300 mg × 2/d Orally 7 d
Russo et al., 2019 R, DB, PC 18–50 48 (24/24) L. acidophilus GLA-14,
L. rhamnosus HN001
5 × 109 CFU Orally 15 d Placebo / Orally 15 days 6 m Nugent score > 7
Metronidazole 500 mg × 2/d Orally 7 d Metronidazole 500 mg × 2/d Orally 7 days
Zhang et al., 2021 R, NB 18–65 99 (52/47) L. rhamnosus GR-1
L. reuteri RC-14
 ≥ 1 × 109 CFU Orally 30 d Metronidazole 0.2 g Vaginally 7 days 90 d Nugent score ≥ 7
metronidazole 0.2 g Vaginally 7d
Anukam, K. C et al.,2006 R 18–50 35 (17/18) L. rhamnosus GR-1,
L. reuteri RC-14
109 CFU Vaginally 5 d Metronidazole 0.75% Vaginally 5 days 30 d Nugent score 7–10
Ling, Zongxin et al., 2013 R / 55 (25/30) L. delbrueckii(lactis DM8909)  ≥ 109 CFU Vaginally 10 d Metronidazole 500 mg Vaginally 7 days 30d Amsel’s criteria ≥ 3 &Nugent score7–10
Ozmen et al., 1997a R, NB 18–53 211 (97/114) L. acidophilus 107–7 × 108 CFU Vaginally 12 d Metronidazole 500 mg × 2/d Orally 7 days 22-35d Amsel’s criteria ≥ 3
Hallén et al.,1992 R, DB, PC 17–40 57 (28/29) L. acidophilus 108–9 CFU Vaginally 6 d Placebo / Vaginally 6 days 20d Amsel’s criteria ≥ 3
Mastromarino et al., 2009 R, DB, PC 33 ± 9.9/
35 ± 9.2
34 (18/16) L. brevis CD2,
L. salivarius FV2,
L. plantarum FV9
109 CFU Vaginally 7 d Placebo / Vaginally 7 days 28d Amsel’s criteria ≥ 3
Vicariotto et al., 2014 R, DB, PC 34.7 ± 8.9 34 (24/10) L. fermentum LF15
L. plantarum LP01
4 × 109 CFU Vaginally 7 d Placebo / Vaginally 7 days 28d Amsel’s criteria ≥ 3 &Nugent score7–10
  1. R: randomized; DB: double blind; PC: placebo controlled; NB: not blind; OB: observer blind; CFU: colony-forming units