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Table 2 Summary of subgroup analysis results

From: Probiotics are a good choice for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trial

Groups No. trials No. patients RR (95 % CI) P value I2, % P value of heterogeneity
All studied 14 1662 1.23 (1.05, 1.43) 0.009 83 < 0.00001
Administration route of probiotics
 Oral 5 351 1.63 (1.19, 2.22) 0.002 71 0.008
 Vagina 8 1282 1.11 (0.96, 1.28) 0.17 79 < 0.0001
 Oral plus Vagina 1 29 0.52 (0.24, 1.16) 0.11 / /
Diagnosis standards
 Nugent score 7 579 1.01 (0.88, 1.16) 0.89 50 0.06
 Amsel’s criteria 4 554 1.81 (0.90, 3.64) 0.09 96 < 0.00001
 Amsel and/or Nugent score 3 529 1.26 (0.96, 2.29) 0.19 84 0.002
Recruitment area of participants
 Europe 6 529 1.13 (0.93, 1.38) 0.21 73 0.002
 Non-Europe 8 1199 1.20 (0.95, 1.51) 0.13 87 < 0.00001
Follow-up time
 Short-term
(≤ 1 month)
11 1149 1.21 (1.01, 1.44) 0.04 84 < 0.00001
 Long-term
(≥ 1 month)
3 513 1.35 (0.87, 2.10) 0.18 85 0.001
Species of probiotics
 Single species 6 995 1.19 [0.99, 1.43] 0.06 85 < 0.00001
 Multiple species 8 667 1.25 [0.93, 1.69] 0.14 83 < 0.00001
Use of L. rhamnose
 Yes 11 987 1.28 [1.02, 1.60] 0.03 84 < 0.00001
 No 3 675 1.07 [0.92, 1.25] 0.37 64 0.06
Dosage of probiotics
 < 1 × 109 7 929 1.03 [0.94, 1.12] 0.57 42 0.11
 ≥ 1 × 109 7 733 1.54 [1.13, 2.08] 0.006 77 0.0002