Skip to main content

Table 5 Social determinants of access to quality PNC visits in Nepal, 2016 (N = 999)

From: High coverage but low quality of maternal and newborn health services in the coverage cascade: who is benefitted and left behind in accessing better quality health services in Nepal?

Determinants Categories Frequency (N = 999) % p PNC visit
cOR (95% CI)
PNC visit aOR (95% CI)
Structural
Wealth rank Lower (40%) 329 60.8 0.035 1.00  
  Upper (60%) 670 69.3   1.45 (1.03, 2.06)*  
Ethnicity Disadvantaged 615 64.0 0.110 1.00  
  Advantaged 384 70.5   1.35 (0.93, 1.94)  
Religion Others 145 66.4 0.990 1.00  
  Hindu 854 66.5   1.00 (0.65, 1.55)  
Occupation Not working 467 63.9 0.060 1.00  
  Agriculture 387 65.6   1.08 (0.77, 1.50)  
  Working paid 146 77.1   1.90 (1.09, 3.32)*  
Maternal education Illiterate 207 60.9 0.060 1.00  
  Primary 160 61.6   1.03 (0.64, 1.65)  
  Secondary higher 632 69.6   1.47 (0.99, 2.19)  
Decision-making Yes 354 68.9 0.342 1.18 (0.84, 1.66)  
  No 645 65.2   1.00  
Intermediary
Language Nepali 484 68.1 0.008 0.80 (0.55, 1.18) 0.65* (0.43, 0.99)
  Maithili 147 56.1   0.48 (0.29, 0.80)** 0.48 (0.22, 1.09)
  Bhojpuri 90 55.4   0.46 (0.26, 0.84)* 0.59 (0.29, 1.22)
  Others 278 72.7   1.00 1.00
Residence Urban 611 67.3 0.597   
  Rural 388 65.3   0.91 (0.65, 1.28)  
Province One 184 75.6 0.001 1.00  
  Two 196 53.9   0.38 (0.23, 0.63)*** 0.73 (0.37, 1.46)
  Bagmati 196 70.4   0.77 (0.41, 1.45) 0.65 (0.34, 1.23)
  Gandaki 105 76.0   1.03 (0.52, 2.01) 0.92 (0.47, 1.81)
  Lumbini 187 67.4   0.67 (0.41, 1.08) 0.72 (0.44, 1.18)
  Karnali 44 45.1   0.27 (0.15, 0.47)*** 0.34 (0.18, 0.64)***
  Sudurpaschim 87 64.3   0.58 (0.36, 0.93)* 0.56 (0.31, 0.99)*
Region Mountain 60 72.5 0.019 1.05 (0.54, 2.05)  
  Hill 434 71.5   1.00  
  Terai 505 61.5   0.64(0.44, 0.91) *  
Maternal age (years) 15–19 145 65.8 0.838 1.00  
  20–34 813 66.4   1.03(0.69, 1.53)  
  35+ 41 71.0   1.27 (0.53, 3.02)  
Birth order < 4 903 68.4 0.001 1.00 1.00
  ≥ 4 96 48.7   0.44 (0.27, 0.71)*** 0.52 (0.29, 0.93)*
Sex of child (index child) Male 563 67.3 0.631 1.00  
  Female 436 65.5   0.92 (0.67, 1.28)  
Access to bank account No 606 63.3 0.022 1.00  
  Yes 393 71.5   1.45 (1.05, 2.01)*  
Media exposure Yes 667 70.4   1.69 (1.21, 2.34)**  
  No 606 63.3 0.022 1.00  
Last birth (index child) Wanted 816 66.0   1.00  
  Unwanted 183 68.7 0.516 0.88 (0.61, 1.28)  
Distance to health facilities as a perceived problem No problem 468 70.6 0.037 1.00  
  Problem 531 62.9   0.71 (0.51, 0.98)*  
Health system
Perceived problem not having female providers No perceived problem 349 73.8 0.002 1.00 1.00
  Perceived problem 650 62.6   0.59 (0.42, 0.83)** 0.67 (0.47, 0.96)*
Awareness of health mothers’ group in the community Yes 364 65.6 0.701 0.94 (0.68, 1.29)  
  No 635 67.0   1.00  
C-section delivery Yes 165 86.9 < 0.001 4.00 (2.30, 6.95)*** 4.20 (2.29, 7.68)***
  No 834 62.4   1.00 1.00
Quality of 4+ ANC visits Poor 383 56.9 < 0.001 1.00 1.00
Optimal 615 72.5   2.00 (1.45, 2.76)*** 1.69 (1.18, 2.43)**
Quality of ID Poor 541 64.0 0.111   
Optimal 457 69.4    
  1. ID institutional delivery
  2. Significance at ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05. Hosmer Lemeshow test (p = 0.493)