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Table 2 ORs (95%CI) for the adverse pregnancy outcomes according to the quartiles of urea acid (UA)

From: Serum urea acid and urea nitrogen levels are risk factors for maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study

  UA (μmol/L) in the second trimester P trend Per–SD increase
Q1 (< 179.8) Q2 (179.8–205.4) Q3 (205.5–234.7) Q4 (> 234.7)
PROM
 Case/N 76/401 83/401 75/400 79/400   
 Model 1 1 (ref) 1.16 (0.79, 1.58) 0.99 (0.69, 1.41) 1.05 (0.74, 1.49) 0.960 1.01 (0.89, 1.14)
 Model 2 1 (ref) 1.10 (0.77, 1.57) 1.01 (0.70, 1.44) 1.02 (0.71, 1.46) 0.821 1.01 (0.88, 1.14)
PTB
 Case/N 5/401 10/401 9/400 13/400   
 Model 1 1 (ref) 2.03 (0.69, 5.98) 1.82 (0.61, 5.49) 2.66 (0.94, 7.53) 0.089 1.27 (0.94, 1.72)
 Model 2 1 (ref) 2.02 (0.67, 6.04) 1.85 (0.61, 5.65) 2.70 (0.94, 7.80) 0.095 1.27 (0.94, 1.73)
LBW
 Case/N 7/401 8/401 6/400 8/400   
 Model 1 1 (ref) 1.15 (0.41, 3.19) 0.86 (0.29, 2.57) 1.15 (0.41, 3.20) 0.928 1.01 (0.70, 1.46)
 Model 2 1 (ref) 1.19 (0.42, 3.42) 0.99 (0.32, 3.08) 1.35 (0.47, 3.89) 0.669 1.09 (0.75, 1.61)
SGA
 Case/N 20/401 16/401 23/400 24/400   
 Model 1 1 (ref) 0.79 (0.40, 1.55) 1.16 (0.63, 2.15) 1.22 (0.66, 2.24) 0.334 1.14 (0.92, 1.41)
 Model 2 1 (ref) 0.87 (0.44, 1.72) 1.36 (0.73, 2.56) 1.47 (0.78, 2.75) 0.123 1.22 (0.98, 1.51)
  UA (μmol/L) in the third trimester   
Q1 (< 240.1) Q2 (240.2–277.7) Q3 (277.8–323.0) Q4 (> 323.0)
PROM
 Case/N 69/407 74/394 76/406 94/395   
 Model 1 1 (ref) 1.13 (0.79, 1.63) 1.12 (0.79, 1.62) 1.53 (1.08, 2.17) 0.022 1.20 (1.07, 1.36)
 Model 2 1 (ref) 1.15 (0.80, 1.66) 1.10 (0.76, 1.58) 1.48 (1.04, 2.10) 0.047 1.18 (1.04, 1.33)
PTB
 Case/N 13/407 7/394 7/406 10/395   
 Model 1 1 (ref) 0.55 (0.22, 1.39) 0.53 (0.21, 1.35) 0.79 (0.34, 1.82) 0.531 1.11 (0.81, 1.53)
 Model 2 1 (ref) 0.55 (0.21, 1.40) 0.56 (0.22, 1.43) 0.79 (0.34, 1.84) 0.565 1.12 (0.82, 1.53)
LBW
 Case/N 11/407 4/394 8/406 6/395   
 Model 1 1 (ref) 0.36 (0.12, 1.17) 0.72 (0.29, 1.82) 0.56 (0.20, 1.52) 0.378 0.99 (0.68, 1.43)
 Model 2 1 (ref) 0.35 (0.11, 1.12) 0.71 (0.28, 1.84) 0.52 (0.19, 1.45) 0.338 0.97 (0.67, 1.41)
SGA
 Case/N 14/407 23/394 19/406 27/395   
 Model 1 1 (ref) 1.74 (0.88, 3.43) 1.38 (0.68, 2.79) 2.06 (1.06, 3.99) 0.069 1.28 (1.04, 1.57)
 Model 2 1 (ref) 1.76 (0.89, 3.49) 1.42 (0.69, 2.87) 1.99 (1.01, 3.89) 0.066 1.24 (1.01, 1.53)
  1. PROM premature rupture of membranes, PTB premature birth, LBW low birth weight infants, SGA small for gestational age infants. Model 1: without adjustment. Model 2: adjustment for age, pre–pregnancy BMI, education, conception method, number of pregnancies, parity, history of miscarriage, gestational diabetes mellitus and gestational hypertension