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Table 3 Characteristics of the reviews included for leadership and supervision

From: Evidence from district level inputs to improve quality of care for maternal and newborn health: interventions and findings

Reviews (n=07) Description of included interventions Type of studies included (no) Targeted health care providers Outcome reported Pooled data (Y/N) Results
     Other outcomes MNH specific outcomes   
Capblanch 2008[36] Summarize opinion about what supervision of primary health care is by those advocating it; compare these features with reports describing supervision in practice; appraise the evidence of the effects of sector performance. Total: 74
Policy and opinion papers: 08
Descriptive Studies: 54
Quasi: 12
PHC Workers in LMIC Health service coverage   No 10 of 11 studies showed at least one outcome favoring intervention.
     Knowledge and awareness    
Capblanch 2011[37] Supervision is conceptualized as the link between district and peripheral health staff, and is considered important in staff motivation and performance. Supervision often includes aspects of problem solving, reviewing records and observing clinical practice.
Supervision mostly means visiting supervisees, but also includes meetings in the centre.
Total: 09
cRCT’s: 05
CBA: 04
PHC Worker in LMIC Providers’ practice   No 2 of 3 studies found positive impact
     Providers’ knowledge    1 of 3 studies found positive impact
Flodgren 2011[38] Opinion leaders had to be identified by one of the following methods: socio-metric method, informant method, self-designating method, observation method. RCT’s: 18 Local opinion leaders in HIC Compliance   Yes RD12% (6- 14.5%)
Oxman 1995[28] Use of providers explicitly nominated by their colleagues to be "educationally influential”. Trials: 04 Local opinion leaders   No of vaginal deliveries No Increase in number of vaginal deliveries after C-section in hospitals where local opinion leaders were involved (1/1)
Pearson 2007[39] Feasibility, meaningfulness and effectiveness of developing and sustaining nursing leadership to foster a healthy work environment in healthcare. Total:48
Review: 1
Experimental: 2
Descriptive correlational: 45
Nursing Personnel Satisfaction   No Narrative
Wong 2007[41] Leadership was defined as the process through which an individual attempts to intentionally influence another individual or a group to accomplish a goal. Observational: 07 Nursing Personnel Patient satisfaction   No Satisfaction increased in 2 of 3 (insignificant in 1)
     Patient mortality and patient safety    Mortality reduced in 1 of 3 (insignificant in 2)
     Adverse events    Adverse events decreased in 2 of 3 (insignificant in 1)
     Complications    Complications decreased in 2 of 3 (insignificant in 1)
Wheeler 2007[40] Supervisors must be counselors or psychotherapists or other professionals who have had a substantial training as counselors or psychotherapists and who were specifically engaged in a counseling role with clients. Quantitative: 08
Qualitative: 03
Mixed: 07
Counselors or psychotherapist in HIC Self-awareness, skills, self-efficacy, timing and frequency, theoretical orientation, support , client outcomes   No Narrative