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Table 3 Factors associated with lack of exclusive breast feeding within Global Network sites by region for the years 2010 -2013*

From: Rates and determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breast feeding at 42 days postnatal in six low and middle-income countries: A prospective cohort study

  African Sites Indian Sites The Pakistan Site The Guatemalan Site
  % RR (95% CI), P value % RR (95% CI), P value % RR (95% CI), P value % RR (95% CI), P value
Maternal Age   0.0025   NS   0.0086   <.0001
< 20 24.3 1.15 (1.01, 1.31), 0.0390 5.1   3.9 0.90 (0.76, 1.06), 0.2009 16.1 0.81 (0.75, 0.89), <.0001
20-35 70.0 1.0 94.6   90.2 1.0 73.6 1.0
> 35 5.7 1.15 (1.01, 1.31), 0.0290 0.3   5.9 1.15 (1.05, 1.26), 0.0038 10.3 1.45 (1.30, 1.62),<.0001
Maternal education   <.0001   NS   NS   <.0001
No formal education 6.2 1.81 (1.05, 3.12), 0.0333 11.3   80.7   16.0 0.37(0.29, 0.48), <.0001
Primary 60.9 1.41 (0.86, 2.31), 0.1745 24.5   8.1   63.6 0.37(0.29, 0.48), <.0001
Secondary 29.6 1.18 (0.73, 1.90), 0.4939 48.1   7.0   19.2 0.60 (0.51, 0.70), <.0001
University or higher 3.3 1.0 16.1   4.2   1.3 1.0
Parity   0.0055   NS   0.0070   <.0001
0 27.2 0.85 (0.66, 1.10), 0.2220 43.9   20.2 1.10 (1.03, 1.16), 0.0019 28.6 1.20 (1.14, 1.26), <.0001
1-2 38.7 1.0 51.7   31.9 1.0 37.1 1.0
> 2 34.1 1.22 (1.07, 1.39), 0.0032 4.4   47.9 1.04 (0.97, 1.12), 0.2469 34.4 1.06 (0.97, 1.15), 0.1942
Trimester of first ANC   NS   0.0654   0.0699   0.0090
First 8.6   82.6 1.0 32.4 1.0 45.2 1.0
Second 59.7   14.9 1.33 (1.04, 1.70), 0.0213 27.7 0.93 (0.87, 1.00), 0.0629 41.3 0.94 (0.89, 0.99), 0.0127
Third 31.7   2.5 0.73 (0.34, 1.56), 0.4211 39.9 0.99 (0.92, 1.07), 0.8923 13.5 0.88 (0.79, 0.98), 0.0227
Birth attendant   0.0350   0.0027   NS   <.0001
Physician 2.0 1.0 62.4 1.0 30.0   51.3 1.0
Nurse/Midwife/HW 55.8 1.21 (0.84, 1.72), 0.3056 35.1 1.06 (0.87, 1.29), 0.5487 26.6   1.7 0.96 (0.71, 1.30), 0.7892
TBA 28.7 1.41 (0.92, 2.16), 0.1143 0.8 2.60 (1.47, 4.60), 0.0010 41.3   46.7 0.69 (0.64, 0.74), <.0001
Family/Other 13.5 1.43 (0.97, 2.09), 0.0674 1.7 0.67 (0.37, 1.20),0.1794 2.0   0.4 1.12 (0.67, 1.89) 0.6651
Multiple birth   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001   <.0001
Yes 1.8 2.27 (1.61, 3.19), <.0001 1.3 3.60 (2.17, 5.97), <.0001 2.0 1.99 (1.70, 2.34), <.0001 1.2 3.25 (2.75, 3.84), <.0001
No 98.2 1.0 98.7 1.0 98.0 1.0 98.8 1.0
Birth weight   NS   0.0378   NS   <.0001
< 2500 g 3.7   14.8 1.29 (1.01, 1.64), 0.0378 16.0   12.2 1.19 (1.11, 1.28), <.0001
≥ 2500 g 96.3   85.2 1.0 84.0   87.8 1.0
Bag and mask resuscitation   NS   NS   0.0657   0.0233
Yes 1.4   3.0   6.8 0.89 (0.79, 1.01), 0.0657 1.2 1.09 (1.01, 1.18), 0.0233
No 98.6   97.0   93.2 1.0 98.8 1.0
Timely initiation of breastfeeding   NS   0.0001   NS   0.0030
Yes 88.1   84.0 1.0 18.4   72.6 1.0
No 11.9   16.0 1.60 (1.25, 2.04 ), 0.0001 81.6   27.4 1.22 (1.07, 1.40), 0.0030
  1. * Poisson multivariable reduced model with generalized estimating equations accounting for cluster; NS = Not significant