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Table 3 Distribution of respondents receiving good quality ANC and factors associated with quality of ANC services in Nigeria

From: Assessment of quality of antenatal care services in Nigeria: evidence from a population-based survey

Characteristics of the Respondents All women using ANC n = 13410 Had Desirable (Good) Quality of ANC Had minimum acceptable quality of ANC Determinants of Desirable (Good) Quality of ANC
OR(95 % CI) Sig aOR(95 % CI) Sig
Residence
 Urban 6462 *422(6.5) *1053(16.3) Reference    
 Rural 6948 197(2.8) 458(6.6) 0.44(0.39–0.49) 0.000 0.83(0.74–0.94) 0.002
Educational
 No formal 4080 *139(3.4) *225(5.5) Reference    
 Primary 3083 127(4.1) 238(7.7) 1.43(1.20–1.70) 0.000 1.57(1.34–1.85) 0.000
 Secondary 4991 273(5.5) 704(14.1) 2.56(2.20–2.97) 0.000 2.18(1.86–2.56) 0.000
 Higher 1256 80(6.3) 344(27.4) 4.32(3.57–5.22) 0.000 2.69(2.20–3.30) 0.000
Marital status
 Never married 426 14(3.7) 30(7.8) Reference    
 Married or LWSP 12511 576(4.6) 1417(11.3) 1.31(0.99–1.74) 0.062 1.11(0.82–1.52) 0.493
 Formerly married 473 29(6.5) 64(14.4) 1.51(1.05–2.17) 0.027 1.36(0.93–2.00) 0.116
Age (29.7,7.1 yrs)
 <20 705 *13(1.8) *26(3.7) Reference    
 20–29 6131 289(4.7) 660(11.7) 2.12(1.58–2.85) 0.000 1.44(1.09–1.91) 0.011
 30–39 5119 241(4.7) 661(12.9) 2.55(1.90–3.43) 0.000 1.63(1.20–2.21) 0.002
 40+ 1455 77(5.3) 164(11.3) 1.98(1.43–2.76) 0.000 1.53(1.09–2.14) 0.014
Wealth quintile
 Poorest 1406 *26(1.8) *33(2.3) Reference    
 Poorer 2365 73(3.1) 112(4.7) 1.82(1.34–2.46) 0.000 1.49(1.13–1.95) 0.004
 Average 2895 117(4.0) 241(8.3) 2.86(2.15–3.81) 0.000 2.35(1.80–3.06) 0.000
 Wealthier 3277 183(5.6) 445(13.6) 4.28(3.25–5.65) 0.000 2.91(2.22–3.82) 0.000
 Wealthiest 3467 222(6.4) 680(19.6) 6.47(4.92–8.52) 0.000 3.54(2.65–4.72) 0.000
Geographical zone
 North Central 2125 *51(2.4) *175(8.2) Reference    
 North East 2018 45(2.2) 139(6.9) 0.88(0.74–1.06) 0.171 1.38(1.16–1.64) 0.000
 North West 3275 313(9.5) 400(12.2) 1.40(1.18–1.65) 0.000 1.68(1.42–1.98) 0.000
 South East 1630 72(4.4) 195(12.0) 1.11(0.92–1.35) 0.287 0.84(0.70–1.00) 0.052
 South South 1566 38(2.4) 167(10.6) 1.17(0.96–1.42) 0.127 0.70(0.59–0.84) 0.000
 South West 2796 101(3.6) 435(15.6) 1.47(1.24–1.74) 0.000 0.83(0.71–0.97) 0.023
Birth order
 1 2614 98(3.8) *309(11.8) Reference    
 2 2349 119(5.1) 302(12.9) 1.24(1.04–1.47) 0.016 1.03(0.88–1.20) 0.710
 3 2077 107(5.1) 274(13.2) 1.09(0.91–1.30) 0.354 1.01(0.85–1.19) 0.932
 4 6370 296(4.6) 626(9.8) 0.95(0.83–1.10) 0.517 0.98(0.83–1.15) 0.773
Timing of ANC
 1st Trimester 3598 *137(3.8) *443(12.3) Reference    
 2nd Trimester 8310 433(5.2) 965(11.6) 0.97(0.86–1.09) 0.624 0.92(0.83–1.03) 0.137
 3rd Trimester 1453 49(3.4) 104(7.1) 0.67(0.54–0.83) 0.000 0.82(0.67–1.00) 0.053
Number of ANC
 Less than 4 times 2485 *65(2.6) *137(5.5) Reference    
 4 times or more 10925 555(5.1) 1374(12.6) 2.05(1.73–2.42) 0.000 1.52(1.30–1.79) 0.000
Participates in decision
 Yes 3803 195(5.1) *379(10.0) 1.12(0.99–1.26) 0.073 - -
 No 9607 424(4.4) 1132(11.8) Reference    
Skill of ANC
 Skilled 12165 *602(5.0) *1452(11.9) Reference    
 Unskilled 1245 17(1.4) 59(4.7) 0.33(0.26–0.43) 0.000 0.71(0.57–0.89) 0.003
Place of receiving
 Homes 197 *4(1.1) *9(2.3) Reference    
 Govt hospital/clinics 377 495(5.3) 1095(11.7) 7.44(3.4–16.28) 0.000 7.04(3.45–14.4) 0.000
 Govt others 9339 4(0.9) 13(2.8) 1.63(0.67–3.98) 0.280 3.45(1.53–7.75) 0.003
 Private Hospital/Clinic 465 109(3.4) 383(12.6) 6.93(3.15–15.3) 0.000 5.46(2.66–11.2) 0.000
 Others 3032 7(3.4) 12(6.0) 4.04(1.6–10.21) 0.003 5.90(2.52–13.8) 0.000
 Total 13410 567(4.6) 1487(11.3)     
  1. *significant at p = 0.05 chi-square test on independence