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Table 3 Characteristics of included studies (Non-randomized studies)

From: Tocolysis for inhibiting preterm birth in extremely preterm birth, multiple gestations and in growth-restricted fetuses: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Extremely preterm birth (less than 28 weeks of gestation)
Study ID Country Study design Sample size Description of women/patients with preterm labour Intervention (description) Comparison Outcome
Berghella 2009 [27] USA Retrospective cohort (January 1998 - December 2005) 222 (n = 68 vs. n = 154) Women between 14 and 25 week of gestation with suspected cervical dilation ≥1 cm. Indomethancin plus some with cerclage No treatment plus some with cerclage Prolongation of pregnancy >28, 32, or 35 weeks
(50 mg orally, followed by 25 mg orally every 6 h for a maximum of 48 h) Perinatal death
Birth weight >1500 grams
Cape 2010 [26] USA Retrospective cohort (2003–2008) a138 neonates (n = 69 vs. n = 69) All women less than 29 weeks of gestation with threaten with premature rupture of membranes. Indomethancin No treatment Neonatal outcomes only including intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, patent ductus arteriosus, and spontaneous intestinal perforations
Manuck 2012 [25] USA Retrospective cohort (January 2000 – June 2011) 148 (n = 84 vs. n = 64) Women with a singleton non-anomalous fetus with spontaneous preterm labour and intact membranes, between 20–23.9 week of gestation, and with cervical dilation ≥ 1 cm and effaced > 50 %. Tocolytic medication No treatment Prolongation of pregnancy >7 days
(Database record of tocolytic treatment used i.e. magnesium sulfate, indomethacin or nifedipine, either used singly or in combination) Perinatal death
Visintine 2008 [24] USA Retrospective cohort (1995–2006) 101 (n = 51 vs. n = 50) Asymptomatic women followed from 14 weeks through 23 weeks 6 days gestation with a short cervical length, defined as <25 mm, placed with an ultrasound-indicated cerclage. Indomethacin plus cerclage Cerclage only Prolongation of pregnancy >24, 32, or 35 weeks
(50 mg initially orally or rectally, followed by 25 mg orally every 6 h for about 48 h.)
Multiple gestations
No report found for tocolytic treatment for imminent risk of preterm labor
Growth-restricted fetuses
No report found for tocolytic treatment for imminent risk of preterm labor
  1. aSample size of infants exposed to in utero indomethancin within 4 weeks of delivery (n = intervenetion group vs. n = comparison group)