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Table 2 Observed disrespect and abuse

From: Applying a participatory approach to the promotion of a culture of respect during childbirth

Type of Disrespect and Abuse observed Baseline
N = 208
n (%)
Evaluation
N = 459
n (%)
Difference between Evaluation and Baseline
%
Physical Abuse    
 Fundal pressure applied 7 (3.4) 1 (0.2) −3.2
 Lack of anesthesia for episiotomy 9 (4.3) 0 (0.0) −4.3
Non-Consented Care    
 Lack of consent for first examination 177 (85.1) 0 (0.0) −85.1
 Lack of consent for vaginal examination 170 (81.7) 0 (0.0) −81.7
Non-Confidential Care    
 Examination performed in way or setting that other clients could hear 11 (5.4) 42 (9.2) 3.8
 Health providers discussed mother’s private health information in a way or setting that others could hear 42 (20.2) 143 (31.2) 11.0
Lack of Privacy    
 No partitions separating beds 179 (86.1) 118 (25.7) −60.4
 Partitions did not give privacy/not adequately closed to provide privacy 76 (36.5) 199 (43.4) 6.9
 Mother not well covered 133 (63.9) 14 (3.1) −60.8
Non-Dignified Care    
 Mother not welcomed in a kind and gentle manner 51 (24.5) 0 (0) −24.5
 Mother not told where to go in antenatal ward 28 (13.5) 0 (0) −13.5
 Delivering service provider did not congratulate the mother after birth 55 (26.3) 7 (1.5) −24.8
 Provider did not introduce herself to mother 194 (93.3) 55 (12.0) −81.3
 Mother not cleaned after birth and third stage of labor 33 (26.1) 3 (0.7) −25.4
 Mother not called her name throughout interactions 123 (60.0) 1 (0.2) −59.8
 No bed ready for mother 113 (54.3) 96 (20.9) −33.4
 Bed provided to mother was not clean 135 (65.9) 6 (1.3) −64.6
 No pad provided to the mother after birth 17 (8.2) 439 (95.6) 87.4