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Table 1 Demographic and obstetric characteristics of referent women with live births and women with intrapartum stillbirth

From: Incidence of intrapartum stillbirth and associated risk factors in tertiary care setting of Nepal: a case-control study

Variable Referent Live Birth (N = 4476) Intrapartum Stillbirth (N = 136) P-value*
Maternal age in years
 Mean ± SD 23.7 ± 4.4 25.7 ± 6.3  
 Median (IQR) 23.0 (20–26) 24.0 (20–30)  
  n (%) n (%)  
Maternal age (5-year interval)
  < 20 1224 (27.3) 34 (25.0) p < 0.001
 20–25 1957 (43.7) 45 (33.1)
 26–30 973 (21.7) 28 (20.6)
  > 30 322 (7.2) 29 (21.3)
Maternal education
 Primary education (5 years) or less 1459 (32.6) 17 (12.5) p < 0.001
 Six years of education or more 3017 (67.4) 119 (87.5)
Ethnicity
 Brahmin/Chhetri (hill or terai) 1733 (38.7) 42 (30.9) p = 0.278
 Relatively advantaged Janajatis 812 (18.1) 22 (16.2)
 Disadvantaged Janajatis 1293 (28.9) 48 (35.3)
 Non-Dalit (terai) 369 (8.2) 12 (8.8)
 Dalit (hill and terai) 235 (5.3) 11 (8.1)
 Muslim 34 (0.8) 1 (0.7)
Wealth quintile
 Poorest 787 (19.0) 16 (34.0) p < 0.01
 Poorer 805 (19.5) 11 (23.4)  
 Middle 864 (20.9) 7 (14.9)  
 Richer 837 (20.2) 7 (14.9)  
 Richest 845 (20.4) 6 (12.8)
Antenatal Care Attendance
 At least one visit 3904 (87.2) 79 (58.1) p < 0.001
 No ANC 572 (12.8) 57 (41.9)
Parity
 Primipara 2418 (54.0) 64 (47.1) p < 0.001
 Multipara (1–2) 1869 (41.8) 51 (37.5)
 Multipara (3 or more) 189 (4.2) 21 (15.4)
Previous stillbirths
 No 4380 (97.9) 130 (95.6) p = 0.08
 Yes 96 (2.1) 6 (4.4)
Antepartum hemorrhage
 No 4352 (97.2) 118 (86.8) p < 0.001
 Yes 124 (2.8) 18 (13.2)
Hypertensive disorder during pregnancy
 No 4167 (93.1) 121 (89.0) p = 0.05
 Yes 309 (6.9) 15 (11.0)
Medical disorder during pregnancy
 No 4262 (95.2) 127 (93.4) p = 0.2
 Yes 214 (4.8) 9 (6.6)
Multiple birth
 No 4438 (99.2) 126 (92.6) p < 0.001
 Yes 38 (0.8) 10 (7.4)
Obstetric complication during labora
 No 3965 (88.6) 69 (50.7) p < 0.001
 Yes 511 (11.4) 67 (49.3)
Fetal Heart Rate monitoring as per protocol
 Yes 1100 (24.6) 9 (6.6) p < 0.001
 No 3376 (75.4) 127 (93.4)
Use of Partogram
 Yes 2272 (50.8) 15 (11.0) p < 0.001
 No 2204 (49.2) 121 (89.0)
Mode of delivery
 Vaginal 3464 (77.4) 92 (67.6) p = 0.007
 C-section 1012 (22.6) 44 (32.4)
 Sex of newborn
 Female 2103 (47.0) 52 (38.2) p = 0.45
 Male 2373 (53.0) 84 (61.8)
Weight per gestational age
 Appropriate-for-gestational age 2796 (62.5) 73 (53.7) p < 0.02
 Small-for-gestation age 1680 (37.5) 63 (46.3)
Gestational age
  < 37 weeks 4113 (91.9) 74 (54.4) P < 0.001
  ≥ 37 weeks 363 (8.1) 62 (45.6)
Gestational age and weight per gestational age
 AGA and ≥ 37 weeks 2542 (56.8) 34 (25.0) p < 0.001
 SGA and ≥ 37 weeks 1604 (35.8) 40 (29.4)
 AGA and < 37 weeks 254 (5.7) 39 (28.7)
 SGA and < 37 weeks 76 (1.7) 23 (16.9)
  1. *p-value determined by Pearson’s chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test
  2. aObstetric complications during labor included: antepartum hemorrhage, hypertensive disorder, mal-presentation, prolonged labor, and cord prolapse