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Table 1 Characteristics of women by source of payment of birth. Birth in Brazil, 2011-2012

From: Use of Robson classification to assess cesarean section rate in Brazil: the role of source of payment for childbirth

  Total Public Private Chi square P-value*
n % n % n %  
Total 23,894 19,129 4,765 -
Maternal age
  < 20 4,571 19.1 4,325 22.6 246 5.2 <0.001
 20–34 16,807 70.4 13,162 68.8 3,645 76.5
  > 34 2,509 10.5 1,635 8.6 874 18.3
Skin color
 White 8,078 33.8 5,484 28.7 2,594 54.4 <0.001
 Black 2,051 8.6 1,892 9.9 159 3.3
 Pardo/Mixed 13,404 56.1 11,457 59.9 1,947 40.9
 Yellow 257 1.1 202 1.1 55 1.2
 Indigenous 99 0.4 89 0.5 10,0 0.2
Marital status
 Live with a partner 19,440 81.4 15,177 79.4 4,263 89.5 <0.001
 Do not live with a partner 4,431 18.6 3,931 20.6 500 10.5
Years of schooling
  ≤ 7 6,363 26.5 6,197 32.4 166 3.5 <0.001
 8 to 10 6,104 25.6 5,604 29.3 500 10.5
 11 to 14 9,310 39.0 6,790 35.5 2,520 52.9
  ≥ 15 2,112 8.9 535 2.8 1,577 33.1
Parity
 0 11,208 46.9 8,569 44.8 2,639 55.4 <0.001
 1 7,015 29.4 5,405 28.3 1,610 33.8
  ≥ 2 5,671 23.7 5,155 26.9 516 10.8
Previous cesarean**
 0 7,571 59.7 6,885 65.2 686 32.2 <0.001
 1 3,905 30.8 2,689 25.5 1,216 57.2
  ≥ 2 1,211 9.5 986 9.3 225 10.6
Type of pregnancy
 Single 23,610 98.8 18,936 99.0 4,674 98.1 <0.001
 Multiple 284 1.2 192 1.0 92 1.9
Induction of labor
 yes 2,729 11.4 2,561 13.4 168 3.5 <0.001
 no 21,165 88.6 16,568 86.6 4,597 96.5
Labor (spontaneous or induced)
 yes 13,458 56.3 12,618 66.0 840 17.6 <0.001
 no 10,436 43.7 6,511 34.0 3,925 82.4
Delivery
 Vaginal 11,152 46.7 10,605 55.4 547 11.5 <0.001
 Forceps/Vaccum 347 1.5 317 1.7 30 0.6
 Cesarean 12,395 51.9 8,207 42.9 4,188 87.9
High obstetric risk***
 yes 5,677 23.8 4,487 23.5 1,190 25.0 0.225
 no 18,217 76.2 14,642 76.5 3,575 75.0
  1. * χ2 test
  2. ** Only women with previous cesarean
  3. *** hypertensive disorders, eclampsia, preexisting diabetes, gestational diabetes, severe chronic diseases, infection at hospital admission for birth, placental abruption, placenta previa, intrauterine growth restriction and major newborn malformation