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Table 3 Bivariate analyses of primiparous assisted during labor in public hospitals, Brazil, 2011–2012 (N = 2487)

From: Factors associated with cesarean delivery during labor in primiparous women assisted in the Brazilian Public Health System: data from a National Survey

  Professional who assisted with labor  
Physician Midwife p value*
N % N %
Use of any of the good practices during labor Yes 1709 79.4 443 20.6 0.001
No 342 92.2 29 7.8
 Eating Yes 541 71.4 217 28.6 0.002
No 1509 85.6 254 14.4
 Mobility Yes 961 80.2 238 19.8 0.418
No 1089 82.3 234 17.7
 Use of nonpharmacological pain relief Yes 702 74.3 243 25.7 0.006
No 1349 85.5 229 14.5
 Presence of companionship Yes 1101 82.8 229 17.2 0.327
No 790 77.7 227 22.3
 Monitoring progress of labor using a partogram Yes 1048 74.7 355 25.3 <0.001
No 1003 89.6 117 10.4
 Use of spinal or epidural analgesia Yes 232 92.8 18 7.2 0.002
No 1818 80.1 453 19.9
 Total   2050 81.3 472 18.7  
  1. *Chi-square of Pearson was used for analysis