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Table 4 Use of antenatal care, search for childbirth services, clinical and obstetrical complications, and elective C-section, according to maternal characteristics, Brazil, 2011–2012

From: Factors associated with maternal near miss in childbirth and the postpartum period: findings from the birth in Brazil National Survey, 2011–2012

Characteristic Antenatal care pa Search of one or more services before admission pa Clinical or obstetric complications pa Elective C-section pa
Maternal age (years)
 12–19 98.5   21.3   12.9   26.8  
 20–34 98.8   15.4   19.2   46.0  
 35 and over 98.9 0.745 12.5 <0.001 32.2 <0.001 59.0 <0.001
Schooling level (years)
 15 or more 100   5.9   20.5   79.5  
 11–14 99.5   14.0   20.8   50.9  
 8–10 98.9   18.5   17.8   35.4  
 0–7 97.3 <0.001 20.7 <0.001 18.5 0.009 29.0 <0.001
Skin colorb
 White 99.3   12.2   20.3   53.1  
 Mixed 98.6   18.1   18.5   39.5  
 Black 98.5 0.009 19.6 <0.001 22.4 0.004 35.0 <0.001
Conjugal situation
 With partner 99.2   15.8   19.8   45.3  
 Without partner 97.2 <0.001 18.1 0.041 17.5 0.035 36.4 <0.001
Primipara
 No 98.2   14.8   19.8   41.5  
 Yes 99.5 <0.001 17.8 <0.001 18.9 0.264 46.1 <0.001
Previous C-section
 0 98.8   17.1   18.2   35.0  
 1 99.0   13.3   23.2   71.5  
 2 or more 98.8 0.200 11.3 <0.001 25.6 <0.001 89.2 <0.001
  1. aChi-squared statistic test; bPregnant women who self-reported with East Asian or indigenous skin color were excluded from this analysis