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Table 5 Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios of postpartum haemorrhage among women with FGM Type 3, by episiotomy type

From: Episiotomy and obstetric outcomes among women living with type 3 female genital mutilation: a secondary analysis

  Model 1: Unadjusted odds ratio (95 % CI) Model 2: Adjusted odds ratio (95 % CI)
Episiotomy type
 None (comparison) 1.00 1.00
 Anterior 0.08 (0.02–0.26)*** 0.08 (0.02–0.24)***
 Posterior lateral 0.20 (0.07–0.60)*** 0.17 (0.05–0.52)**
 Anterior & Posterior lateral 0.05 (0.02–0.12)*** 0.04 (0.01–0.11)***
 Other 0.07 (0.02–0.23)*** 0.06 (0.02–0.20)***
Obstetric characteristics
 Parity -- 0.56 (0.29–1.08)
 Pelvic introitus -- 0.72 (042–1.24)
Demographic characteristics
 Age -- 1.02 (0.97–1.08)
 Education -- 1.15 (0.77–1.71)
 SES -- 0.82 (0.45–1.49)
  1. ***p ≤ 0.001, **p ≤ 0.01 ***p ≤ 0.05
  2. Adjusted for clustering at the centre level (n = 28)
  3. Note: Pelvic introitus assessed by fingerbreadths