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Table 5 Adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes among different management groups in combined databases (Sensitivity analysis)

From: Management of pregnancy at and beyond 41 completed weeks of gestation in low-risk women: a secondary analysis of two WHO multi-country surveys on maternal and newborn health

  Combined
  n/N (%) Crude ORa (95% CI) AORb (95% CI)
Adverse maternal outcomes
 PPH
  IOL 168/5549 (3.03) 1.0 1.0
  ECS 45/2493 (1.81) 0.98 (0.69, 1.40) 0.90 (0.61, 1.33)
  EM 658/24,961 (2.64) 0.87 (0.71, 1.06) 0.88 (0.70, 1.11)
 Ruptured uterus
  IOL 5/5549 (0.14) 1.0 1.0
  ECS 2/2493 (0.08) 0.42 (0.09, 1.79) 0.21 (0.04, 1.06)
  EM 48/24,961 (0.31) 2.72 (1.18, 6.25) 1.25 (0.45, 3.45)
 Admission to ICU
  IOL 32/5549 (0.58) 1.0 1.0
  ECS 9/2493 (0.36) 2.06 (1.01, 4.21) 1.56 (0.65, 3.76)
  EM 254/24,961 (1.02) 0.78 (0.52, 1.15) 0.72 (0.45, 1.14)
 Postpartum stay > 7
  IOL 154/5549 (2.78) 1.0 1.0
  ECS 101/2493 (4.05) 2.48 (1.87, 3.29) 1.59 (1.17, 2.18)
  EM 732/24,961 (2.93) 0.97 (0.79, 1.18) 0.92 (0.74, 1.15)
 Severe maternal outcome
  IOL 79/5549 (1.42) 1.0 1.0
  ECS 24/2493 (0.96) 1.50 (0.94, 2.40) 1.18 (0.71, 1.96)
  EM 370/24,961 (1.48) 0.72 (0.54, 0.94) 0.73 (0.55, 0.99)
 CS rate
  IOL 1591/5549 (28.67) 1.0 1.0
 EM 6026/24,961 (24.14) 0.70 (0.65, 0.75) 0.65 (0.59, 0.70)
Adverse perinatal outcomes
 APGAR <7 at 5 min
  IOL 109/5549 (1.97) 1.0 1.0
  ECS 29/2493 (1.17) 0.86 (0.56, 1.30) 0.67 (0.41, 1.08)
  EM 482/24,961 (1.94) 0.88 (0.70, 1.10) 0.97 (0.76, 1.24)
 Admission to NICU
  IOL 344/5549 (6.22) 1.0 1.0
  ECS 257/2493 (10.31) 1.89 (1.57, 2.29) 1.54 (1.25, 1.90)
  EM 1452/24,961 (5.83) 0.82 (0.72, 0.94) 0.84 (0.72, 0.97)
 Stillbirth
  IOL 25/5549 (0.45) 1.0 1.0
  ECS 7/2493 (0.28) 0.91 (0.40, 2.08) 0.76 (0.30, 1.91)
  EM 110/24,961 (0.44) 0.94 (0.60, 1.48) 1.01 (0.62, 1.65)
 Early neonatal death
  IOL 23/5549 (0.42) 1.0 1.0
  ECS 7/2493 (0.28) 0.91 (0.39, 2.08) 0.71 (0.30, 1.68)
  EM 101/24,961 (0.41) 0.93 (0.59, 1.48) 0.82 (0.51, 1.32)
 Perinatal death
  IOL 48/5549 (0.87) 1.0 1.0
  ECS 14/2493 (0.56) 0.93 (0.51, 1.69) 0.75 (0.39, 1.43)
  EM 210/24,961 (0.84) 0.92 (0.66, 1.27) 0.90 (0.63, 1.27)
  1. IOL Induction of labour group, ECS Elective Caesarean section group, EM Expectant management group
  2. aCrude ORs were calculated by multilevel logistic regression model after accounted for cluster effect(facility level, country level, data source -WHOGS & WHOMCS)
  3. bAdjusted for maternal characteristics (age, marital status, education, parity, previous CS); neonatal characteristics (birth weight); facility capacity index score and cluster effect (facility level, country level, data source – WHOGS & WHOMCS)