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Table 3 Sociodemographic characteristics and reproductive history of study participants by group

From: PRENACEL – a mHealth messaging system to complement antenatal care: a cluster randomized trial

  Intervention Group Control Group  
All IGa (n = 770) PRENACELb (n = 116) (n = 440) p (ITT) p (PP)
Age (years)d n (%) n (%) n (%)   
 18–19 86 (11.5%) 8 (6.9%) 46 (10.6%) 0.76 0.20
 20–24 228 (30.4%) 37 (31.9%) 138 (31.9%)   
 25–29 220 (29.3%) 44 (37.9%) 125 (28.9%)   
 30–34 131 (17.4%) 18 (15.5%) 66 (15.3%)   
  ≥ 35 86 (11.5%) 9 (7.8%) 57 (13.2%)   
Marital statusd
 Living with a partner 609 (81.2%) 103 (88.8%) 345 (80%) 0.68 0.04
 Not living with a partner 141 (18.8%) 13 (11.2%) 86 (20%)   
Schooling (years)d
  < 4 29 (3.9%) 1 (0.9%) 14 (3.3%) 0.30 0.18
 5–9 289 (38.9%) 41 (35.3%) 145 (34.1%)   
 10–12 384 (51.7%) 63 (54.3%) 244 (57.4%)   
  > 12 41 (5.5%) 11 (9.5%) 22 (5.2%)   
Employmentd
 Paid employment 387 (53.1%) 56 (48.7%) 213 (52.3%) 0.85 0.53
 Not employed 342 (46.9%) 59 (51.3%) 194 (47.7%)   
Socioeconomic Classd
 Upper/Upper Middle 64 (10.1%) 6 (5.6%) 51 (14.7%) 0.0002 0.02
 Middle 359 (56.8%) 70 (65.4%) 222 (64.2%)   
 Lower 209 (33.1%) 31 (29%) 73 (21.1%)   
Raced
 White 281 (37.4%) 44 (37.9%) 177 (41.3%) 0.66c 0.75c
 Mixed 372 (49.5%) 60 (51.7%) 201 (46.9%)   
 Black 88 (11.7%) 11 (9.5%) 46 (10.7%)   
 Asian 8 (1.1%) 0 (0%) 3 (0.7%)   
 Indigenous 2 (0.3%) 1 (0.9%) 2 (0.5%)   
Previous pregnanciesd
 0 241 (32.3%) 37 (31.9%) 146 (34.4%) 0.62 0.93
 1 244 (32.7%) 37 (31.9%) 124 (29.2%)   
 2 118 (15.8%) 19 (16.4%) 66 (15.6%)   
  ≥ 3 143 (19.2%) 23 (19.8%) 88 (20.8%)   
Previous abortionsd
 0 619 (83%) 94 (81%) 345 (81.4%) 0.54 1
  ≥ 1 127 (17%) 22 (19%) 79 (18.6%)   
Pregnancy intentionsd
 Planned pregnancy 302 (43.1%) 58 (51.8%) 160 (41.7%) 0.68 0.07
 Unplanned pregnancy 398 (56.9%) 54 (48.2%) 224 (58.3%)   
Pregnancy risk categoryd
 Low risk, no hospitalization 475 (67.6%) 77 (67%) 279 (71.5%) 0.20 0.41
 High risk or hospitalization 228 (32.4%) 38 (33%) 111 (28.5%)   
Behavioural risk factorsd
 Smoking 89 (12.6%) 12 (10.3%) 59 (15.1%) 0.28 0.25
 Alcohol use 140 (19.8%) 14 (12.1%) 66 (16.9%) 0.27 0.27
 Illicit drug use 14 (2%) 0 (0%) 17 (4.3%) 0.03c 0.02c
  1. aAll IG (Intervention Group) includes all eligible pregnant women who received ANC in intervention primary health care units, regardless of the PRENACEL registration status;
  2. bPRENACEL group only includes pregnant women who received and accessed PRENACEL SMS
  3. cValues compared using Fisher’s exact test and Chi-Square test
  4. dAvailable sample for this analysis