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Table 2 Labour, outcome, fistula characteristics and repair of the 5 mothers diagnosed with vesico-vaginal fistulae in Maputo and Gaza provinces, Mozambique 2016

From: Obstetric fistulae in southern Mozambique: incidence, obstetric characteristics and treatment

Case Age Obstetric history Time taken to Labour duration Type of delivery
(at the secondary HF)
Fistula description and type (Waaldijk classification) Assessment of the mechanism of the fistula Result of surgical repair Follow up 3 months after the surgery
Seek care, from the first pain
(Phase I delay)
Identify and reach the primary HF
(Phase II delay)
Receive treatment until transfer to the secondary HF
(Phase III delay)
Receive treatment at the secondary HF
(Phase III delay)
1.DJC 19 G1P1 7 h 6 h ±24ha No delay >24 h C/S 1 cm, mid-vaginal, non-circumferential involving the proximal urethra (bladder neck) with mild fibrosis
(Type IIAa)d
Ischaemic Closed Closed and continent
2.FBM 27 G4P4 1 h 2 h ±16 h No delay <24 h C/S 1 cm, “high” close to the cervix, intact urethra, mild fibrosis
(Type I)e
Iatrogenic? Not submitted to surgery* N/A
3.PJM 22 G2P2 Went to maternity waiting home with 8 months DK ±12 hb ±6 h >24 h Vaginal Mid-vaginal, 1 cm, intact urethra. No fibrosis.
(Type I)e
Ischaemic Closed Closed and continent
4.AJZ 18 G1P1 6 h 2 h ±12 h ±10 h >24 h C/S Punctate 0.5 cm, “high” vaginal, with mild fibrosis. Intact urethra
(Type I)e
Combination ischaemic and iatrogenic? Closed Did not come for follow up
5.CCM 21 G1P1 7 h 3 h ±24hc DK >24 h C/S large calibre, with total urethral damage
(Type IIBb)f
Ischaemic Closed Closed, but still incontinent
  1. G gravidity, gravida, P parity, para, DK don’t know, don’t remember
  2. awent to the health centre (maternity) reporting pain, but stayed 6 days before starting to have effective contractions, bstayed 2 weeks at the maternity waiting home before labour started. Had delay during transfer: arrived at the district hospital she had been sent to the provincial hospital, c went to the health centre (maternity) reporting pain, but stayed 4 days there before the labour started. Said she lost consciousness during labour (probably eclampsia?)
  3. dType IIAa: fistula involving the proximal urethra without circumferential defect, eType I: fistula with intact urethra, fType IIBb: fistula with total urethral damage and circumferential defect, *Receiving treatment for psychiatric complication