Skip to main content

Table 1 Main determinants of unintended pregnancy amongst adolescents

From: Determinants of adolescent pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

Title Year/country Study type Determinants of adolescent pregnancy
Understanding sexual and reproductive health needs of adolescents: evidence from a formative evaluation in Wakiso district, Uganda 2015 Uganda Qualitative study Sexual advances from adult males, rape, defilement, alcohol, marijuana, lack of youth counsellors, lack of sex education, inadequate education on family planning, cost of contraceptives, inadequate health workers and fear of stigma in seeking help form health workers.
Barriers to access reproductive healthcare for pregnant adolescent girls: a qualitative study in Tanzania 2015 Tanzania Qualitative study They viewed condoms as ineffective for preventing STIs and pregnancies and unnecessary for those in committed relationships. Stigma and long waiting times. Lack of privacy in the clinics discouraged young females from seeking reproductive healthcare, lack of privacy, unkind health care workers
Relationship dynamics and teenage pregnancy in South Africa 2001 south Africa Exploratory study Forced sexual initiation, unwillingness to confront unfaithful partner, partners of adolescents were older, unequal power relations, living in extended family, non-use of contraceptives, peer influence, and curiosity.
Who’s that girl? A qualitative analysis of adolescent girls’ views on factors associated with teenage pregnancies in Bolgatanga, Ghana 2016 Ghana. Qualitative study Material gain, positive attitude towards relationship, early sexual debut, peer influence, most parents don’t talk about safe sex with their children, male should be responsible to buy condoms, fear of ridicule, misconceptions about family planning, inability to resist temptation,
Gendered norms, sexual exploitation and adolescent pregnancy in rural Tanzania 2013, Tanzania Qualitative study Poverty, inability to exercise control over sexual decisions, adolescents sexual relationship with older men, early marriage, sexual expectations from men, rape, coerced sex
Adolescent pregnancy and associated factors in South African youth 2012 south Africa Cross sectional study Unemployment, poverty, high sexual permissive attitude, contraceptive use, didn’t understand the risk of pregnancy, to prove their maturity, unequal power in relationship
Family and community support to adolescent mothers in Swaziland 2003 Swaziland Mixed method Peer influence, lack of sexual and reproductive information from families and communities
Factors influencing the adolescent pregnancy rate in the Greater Giyani Municipality, Limpopo Province – South Africa 2015 south Africa Descriptive and explorative survey Inconvenient health services, poor relationship with health workers, peer pressure, inadequate sexual knowledge, changing attitude toward sex.
Determinants of Sexual Activity and Pregnancy among Unmarried Young Women in Urban Kenya: A Cross-Sectional Study 2015 Kenya Cross-Sectional Study Education level, religion, employment status, household size, family planning knowledge, misconceptions, and early sexual debut.
Unmet social needs and teenage pregnancy in Ogbomosho, South-western Nigeria 2014 Nigeria Cross-Sectional Study The unmet material and financial supports expected from parents, the lack of free education from government up until secondary school level, the lack of sex education and knowledge needs for signs of maturity, and discouragement from friends not to have boyfriend.
Adolescent girls, illegal abortions and “sugar-daddies” in Dar es Salaam: vulnerable victims and active social agents 2001 Tanzania Qualitative study Material benefits from men, high-risk sexual activity, lack of family planning information, sex education and poor health services.
Teenage pregnancy experiences in rural Kenya 2003 Kenya Community based survey Sexual active adolescents, unmet reproductive health needs, education level of adolescents
Health workers’ attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services for unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia 2012 Ethiopia descriptive cross-sectional survey Negative attitude of health workers towards providing RH services to unmarried adolescents, low education of health workers, and lack of training on RH services.
Nurse-Midwives’ Attitudes towards Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs in Kenya and Zambia 2006 Kenyan and Zambia cross-sectional survey Negative attitudes of health workers towards adolescent sexual activity, contraceptive use and seeking reproductive health services.
Determinants of teenage pregnancies: The case of Busia District in Kenya 2007 Kenya Cross sectional survey Level of education, sex education, peer pressure, inappropriate form of recreation, lack of parental guidance and counselling, poverty, knowledge of contraception.
Blood Blockages and Scolding Nurses: Barriers to Adolescent Contraceptive Use in South Africa 2006 south Africa Qualitative study Pressure from male partners, fears about the effects of contraception, health workers attempt to stigmatize teenage sexuality, scolding and hash treatment of adolescents, unwillingness to acknowledge adolescent experience as contraceptive users.
A participatory action research approach to developing youth-friendly strategies for the prevention of teenage pregnancy 2016 South Africa participatory action research approach Sexual curiosity, alcohol consumption, unprotected sex, peer influence, lack of family support, parental absence, low family socioeconomic status, gender power inequality, relationship with elder men, lack of youth-friendly clinics
Socio-Cultural Determinants of Contraceptives Use Among Adolescents in Northern Ghana 2015 Ghana Descriptive cross-sectional study Early sexual debut, educational level, parental neglect, money, curiosity, peer pressure
Predictors of Sexual Debut Among Young Adolescents in Nairobi’s Informal Settlements 2014 kenya Descriptive cross-sectional study School dropout, education, severe family dysfunction, lack of parental control.
Early Pregnancy of Junior High School Girls: Causes and Implications on Academic Progression in the Talensi District of the Upper East Region Of Ghana 2015 Ghana Cross-sectional study Cell phone usage by teenagers, inadequate contraceptives, peer group influence, family neglect and poverty, peer group influence, lack of sex education.
Teenage Pregnancy in the Builsa District: A Focus Study in Fumbisi. 2013 Ghana Cross-sectional study Poverty, prostitution, inadequate sex education, inadequate family support.
The cause and effect of teenage pregnancy: case of kontagora local government area in niger state, northern part of nigeria 2013 Nigeria. Cross-sectional study Early sexual debut, socio-economic background, early marriage and traditional gender roles, peer pressure, lack of sex education and non-used of contraceptive during sexual intercourse.
Poverty the Cause of Teenage Pregnancy in Thulamela Municipality 2015 south Africa Cross-sectional study Poverty, low socio-economic family status, lack of parental support, inadequate sex education from parents, peer influence.
The Effects of Teenage Pregnancy on the Educational Attainment of Girls at Chorkor, a Suburb of Accra 2013 Ghana Qualitative study Poor parenting, poverty, peer influence and school dropout.