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Table 3 Relative Risks of Stillbirth by Global Network region, 2010–2016

From: Trends and determinants of stillbirth in developing countries: results from the Global Network’s Population-Based Birth Registry

  Africa India Pakistan Guatemala
SB Relative Riska (95% CI) SB Relative Riska (95% CI) SB Relative Riska (95% CI) SB Relative Riska (95% CI)
Maternal age
 < 20 1.11 (1.00, 1.23) 1.13 (1.05, 1.21) 1.03 (0.91, 1.17) 1.03 (0.89, 1.20)
 20–35 reference reference reference reference
 > 35 1.63 (1.40, 1.89) 2.39 (1.63, 3.50) 1.41 (1.27, 1.57) 2.21 (1.96, 2.49)
Education
 No formal education 0.98 (0.83, 1.16) 1.12 (0.99, 1.26) 1.73 (1.50, 2.00) 2.07 (1.74, 2.46)
 Primary 1.02 (0.88, 1.17) 1.17 (1.09, 1.26) 1.31 (1.08, 1.59) 1.32 (1.11, 1.55)
 Secondary+ reference reference reference reference
Parity
 0 1.29 (1.14, 1.45) 1.32 (1.23, 1.41) 1.42 (1.27, 1.58) 1.26 (1.11, 1.43)
 1–2 reference reference reference reference
 ≥ 3 1.23 (1.14, 1.32) 1.38 (1.24, 1.53) 1.36 (1.26, 1.48) 1.79 (1.53, 2.08)
≥ 1 ANC visit
 Yes reference reference reference reference
 No 4.92 (3.66, 6.61) 2.93 (1.46, 5.89) 1.54 (1.38, 1.71) 2.00 (1.60, 2.50)
Delivery Location
 Hospital reference reference reference reference
 Clinic 0.38 (0.26, 0.55) 0.38 (0.33, 0.45) 0.88 (0.79, 0.99) 0.60 (0.40, 0.89)
 Home/Other 0.52 (0.32, 0.84) 3.27 (2.54, 4.22) 0.91 (0.80, 1.03) 0.65 (0.57, 0.74)
  1. aThe estimates and relative risks are from a Poisson model with generalized estimating equations to control for cluster level effects and includes terms for region, maternal age, education, parity, antenatal care, delivery location and interaction terms for Region with each of the other covariates