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Table 2 Contraceptive use and need for postpartum family planning

From: A systematic review and meta-analysis of postpartum contraceptive use among women in low- and middle-income countries

Country, Year published [Reference] N mCPR (95% CI) Share of modern contraceptive method-mix used postpartum (%)Φ Fertility intention & Unmet need (%)
Low mCPR (< 20%)
 Ethiopia, 2015 [43] 899 10.3 Injectables (77.1), IUD (16.6)
OCP (3.1), Implant (2.1), Condom (1.1)
Desire to space (7.1), Desire to limit (3.1), Unmet need (10.2)e
 Kenya, 2013 [42] 671 Injectables (36.4), Implant (30.1)
LNG-IUS (16.2), POP (14.7), IUD (2.6)
Desire to limit (25.5)
Unmet need (42.3)f
Moderate mCPR (20–40%)
 Niger, 2013 [51] 673 25.0 Among lactating womena
Modern methods (25.0)b
Sterilizations (23.0)
 Ghana, 2017 [54]   25.5 Injectables (41.6), OCPs (15.1)
Condoms (15.1), Implants (9.4)
IUDs (9.4), Sterilization (9.4)
 21 LMIC, 2015 [16] 27.0 Short-acting methods (51.0–96.0)b Desire to space (37.0), Desire to limit (25.0), Unmet need (62.0)e
 Nigeria, 2005 [41] 256 29.7 Condoms (42.1), IUCD (35.5)
Pills (9.2), Injectables (9.2), Sterilization (4.0)
Unmet need (59.4)e
 27 countries, 2001 [9]   30.0 Pills (mainly in 0–6 months)b Desire to space (39.1), Desire to limit (25.5), Unmet need (64.6% across countries)e
 Tanzania, 2015 [50] 5284 34.0 Injectables (35.3), Condoms (29.4)
OCP (20.6), Dual method (14.7)
Desire to space (11.0), Desire to limit (27.0), Unmet need (38.0)e
 India, 2014 [48] 1049 33.6 Condoms (80.3), OCP (11.5)
IUD (5.1), Sterilization (2.5), ECP (0.6)
 Nigeria, 2013 [63] 108c 35.4 Condoms (51.4), IUD (31.5), OCP (11.4), Injectables (5.7)
 India, 2016 [13] 117 36.0f IUCD (28.6), POP (14.2), Injectables (7.1) Unmet need (25.6)f
 Kenya, 2011 [17] 2264 36.0 Unmet need (59.0)e
High mCPR (> 40%)
 Indonesia, 2010 [38] 1528 40.5 Injectables (52.6), Implants (28.7)
IUD (9.5), OCPs (5.3), Sterilization (3.9)
Unmet need (41.0)e
 Nigeria, 2018 [53]   41.6 Injectables (34.8), OCPs (21.2), IUDs (11.3), Condoms (6.8), Sterilization (3.0)
 Kenya, 2011 [17] 2994 43.2 Injectables (48.0), Pills (22.0)
Condoms (6.0)
Desire to limit (32.2)
 India, 2016 [14] 178 44.0 IUD, POP, Injectablesb
 Nigeria, 2016 [62] 2924 47.6g Injectables (45.9), IUDs (36.8), OCP (12.7)
 Ethiopia, 2017 [11] 590 48.0 (43.9–52.2) Injectables (59.7), Implants (24.7)
Pills (12.0)
Desire to space (67.1), Desire to limit (14.7)
 Ethiopia, 2015 [10] 703 48.4 (44.5–52.1) Injectables (68.5), OCPs (16.8) Desire to space (51.1), Desire to limit (46.1)
 Kenya, 2015 [35] 3579 49.0- in 6 months
60.0- in 12 months
(Injectables, Pills)b, Condoms (6.0) Desire to limit (32.1)
 Malawi, 2014 [36] 634 Methods planned a
Implant (67.0), Condom (42.0), Injectables (38.0)
Desire to limit (97.0)
 Indonesia, 2017 [49]   50 Injectables (71.2), OCPs (8.8)
IUDs (5.9), Implants (3.5)
Sterilization (5.3)
Unmet need (47)
 Kenya, 2017 [55] 955 59 Injectables (64.4), Implants (16.9)
OCPs (10.2), IUDs (3.4), Condoms (3.4), Sterilization (1.7)
Unmet need (34)
 Sri Lanka, 2017 [56] 1112 64.5 Condoms (30.9), IUDs (27.2)
Injectables (23.3), OCPs (0.8)
 Ethiopia, 2017 [59] 605 68.1 (64.4–71.8) Injectables (58.8), Implants (31.8)
Pills (4.9), IUDs (3.4), Sterilization (0.1)
 
 Kenya, 2007 [58] 319d 72.0e Condoms (65.0)a, OCPs (31.0) Injectables (44.0), Switched methods (25)
5 LMIC, 2015 [8] 36, 687 Zambia (73.5), India (65.5), Pakistan (4.0) OCP or injectables (> 90), LARC (3.0–10.0)b Unmet need (25.0–96.0)e
 Ethiopia, 2018 [60]   80.3 (74.5–83.1)# Injectables (34.2), OCPs (22.2)
Implants (27.3), IUDs (7), Condoms (2.1)
 
 Egypt, 2018 [45] 1500 80.7 Unmet need (16.3)
  1. Note: CI confidence interval, ECP emergency contraceptive pill, IUD intrauterine device, mCPR modern contraceptive prevalence rate, LAM lactational amenorrhea method, LNG IUS Levonorgestrel intrauterine system, LMIC low –and middle-income countries, OCP oral contraceptive pill, POP progesterone only pills
  2. aMutually not exclusive bDisaggregated data not available cContraceptive prevalence rate
  3. d% may not add up to 100% as we only report methods in the review that were included in the study ‘-‘Indicates no data available
  4. eProspective definition (women not using modern contraceptives but wanting to space or limit pregnancy)
  5. fRetrospective definition (women did not plan to become pregnant with prior pregnancy but did not use modern contraceptives)
  6. gPostnatal counseling group; hHIV-1 seropositive women; i Hormonal contraceptive users; j Pre-counseling group; k Breastfeeding group