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Table 1 Demographics and socioeconomic status, N = 385 (n(%))

From: Women’s costs for accessing comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services: findings from an observational study in Johannesburg, South Africa

 HIV-negative/
status unknown
HIV-positiveTotal
(n = 129)(n = 256)(n = 385)
Age (median (IQR))27.7 (22.1–37.7)38.9 (34.0–42.6)36.7 (29.7–41.9)
Race
  Black94 (72.9%)243 (94.9%)337 (87.5%)
  White1 (0.8%)1 (0.4%)2 (0.5%)
  Coloureda34 (26.4%)12 (4.7%)46 (12.0%)
  Indian/Other Asian0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)
Marital status
  Married (legal or informal)38 (29.5%)61 (23.8%)99 (25.7%)
  Cohabitating/has a partner75 (58.1%)135 (52.7%)210 (54.6%)
  Divorced/separated/widowed3 (2.3%)16 (6.3%)19 (4.9%)
  Single13 (10.1%)44 (17.2%)57 (14.8%)
Education
  Grade 7 or less8 (6.2%)21 (8.2%)29 (7.5%)
  Grade 8–1163 (48.8%)116 (45.3%)179 (46.5%)
  Grade 12 / Matriculated32 (24.8%)91 (35.6%)123 (32.0%)
  Higher degree /diploma post matriculation26 (20.2%)28 (10.9%)54 (14.0%)
Housing type
  House62 (48.1%)103 (40.2%)165 (42.9%)
  Flat/apartment14 (10.9%)39 (15.3%)53 (13.8%)
  Shack20 (15.5%)43 (16.8%)63 (16.4%)
  Wendy house/cottage/back room15 (11.6%)46 (18.0%)61 (15.8%)
  Domestic quarters/room in employers house8 (6.2%)19 (7.4%)27 (7.0%)
  Student residence9 (7.0%)3 (1.2%)12 (3.1%)
  Other1 (0.8%)3 (1.2%)4 (1.0%)
 Number of rooms in housing (median (IQR))3 (1–4)3 (1–4)3 (1–4)
 Electricity in housing117 (90.7%)230 (89.8%)347 (90.1%)
 Piped water in housing92 (71.3%)165 (64.5%)257 (66.8%)
 Number of people staying in housing (median (IQR))4 (3–5)3 (2–5)4 (2–5)
 Number of dependents (adults or children) (median (IQR))1 (0–3)3 (1–4)2 (0–4)
Goes without foodb
  Often1 (0.8%)2 (0.8%)3 (0.8%)
  Sometimes31 (24.0%)55 (21.5%)86 (22.3%)
  Seldom1 (0.8%)7 (2.7%)8 (2.1%)
  Never96 (74.4%)190 (74.2%)286 (74.3%)
Employment
 Unemployed60 (46.5%)71 (27.7%)131 (34.0%)
 Employed (formal/informal)55 (42.6%)162 (63.3%)217 (56.4%)
 Self-employed (formal/informal)4 (3.1%)19 (7.4%)23 (6.0%)
 Unable to work/retired1 (0.8%)3 (1.2%)4 (1.0%)
 Student9 (7.0%)1 (0.4%)10 (2.6%)
 She is primary breadwinner at home33 (25.6%)152 (59.4%)185 (48.1%)
  If not, primary breadwinner is male68 (70.8%)80 (76.9%)148 (74.0%)
Primary source of income in the last 12 months
 None13 (10.1%)9 (3.5%)22 (5.7%)
 Employment/working (formal or informal)29 (22.5%)31 (12.1%)60 (15.6%)
 Transfer from family member, spouse, partner63 (48.8%)187 (73.1%)250 (64.9%)
 Grant23 (17.8%)25 (9.8%)48 (12.5%)
 Rental income from tenants1 (0.8%)4 (1.6%)5 (1.3%)
 Monthly reported individual income (mean (SD))$265.93 ($944.47)$260.35 ($273.11)$262.31 ($600.31)
 Monthly reported household income (including respondent) (mean (SD))$496.89 ($1167.93)$409.52 ($498.29)$438.95 ($789.45)
 Monthly estimated household income (mean (SD))c$568.19 ($1146.06)$447.87 ($473.63)$448.18 ($768.12)
  1. PHC Primary health clinic, IQR interquartile range
  2. a “Coloured” is an official ethnic category in South Africa used to denote individuals of mixed race
  3. bMissing = 2
  4. cEstimated household income includes approximation of “breadwinner” income if unknown by the respondent