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Table 1 The association of socio-demographic variables with low birth weight

From: Association between maternal lifestyle factors and low birth weight in preterm and term births: a case-control study

Variable

Reference

Total

(n = 1964)

Normal birth weight

(n = 1381)

Preterm low birth weight

(n = 294)

Term low birth weight

(n = 289)

N (%)

N (%)

N (%)

N (%)

Age (years)

19–34

1686 (85.8)

1204 (87.2)

236 (80.3)

246 (85.1)

≤18

36 (1.8)

18 (1.3)

5 (1.7)

13 (4.5) **

≥35

242 (12.3)

159 (11.5)

53 (18.0) **

30 (10.4) *

Marital status

Married

1862 (94.8)

1326 (96.0)

272 (92.5)

264 (91.3)

Unmarried or divorced

102 (5.2)

55 (4.0)

22 (7.5) **

25 (8.7) **

Education level

Primary or below

68 (3.5)

41 (3.0)

12 (4.1)

15 (5.2)

Middle

635 (32.3)

418 (30.3)

109 (37.1)

108 (37.4)

High

662 (33.7)

468 (33.9)

97 (33.0)

97 (33.6) *

Junior college

347 (17.7)

269 (19.5)

39 (13.3) *

39 (13.5) **

Undergraduate or beyond

252 (12.8)

185 (13.4)

37 (12.6)

30 (10.4) **

Economic status (Ұ/month)

≤3000

735 (37.4)

468 (33.9)

132 (44.9)

135 (46.7)

3001–5000

744 (37.9)

538 (39.0)

103 (35.0) **

103 (35.6) **

5001–7000

275 (14.0)

205 (14.8)

37 (12.6) **

33 (11.4) **

> 7000

210 (10.7)

170 (12.3)

22 (7.5) **

18 (6.2) **

Pre-pregnancy BMI

18.5–23.9

1189 (60.5)

870 (63.0)

175 (59.5)

144 (49.8)

< 18.5

573 (29.2)

364 (26.4)

88 (29.9) *

121 (41.9) **

24–27.9

161 (8.2)

119 (8.6)

23 (7.8) *

19 (6.6)

≥28

41 (2.1)

28 (2.0)

8 (2.7) *

5 (1.7)

Parity

1

1121 (57.1)

752 (54.5)

184 (62.6)

185 (64.0)

>1

843 (42.9)

629 (45.5)

110 (37.4) **

104 (36.0) **

History of LBW

No

1889 (96.2)

1354 (98.0)

266 (90.5)

269 (93.1)

Yes

75 (3.8)

27 (2.0)

28 (9.5) **

20 (6.9) **

Antenatal care

≤4

231 (11.8)

119 (8.6)

68 (23.1)

44 (15.2)

5–9

914 (46.5)

582 (42.1)

190 (64.6) **

142 (49.1) **

10–14

752 (38.3)

620 (44.9)

34 (11.6) **

98 (33.9) **

≥15

67 (3.4)

60 (4.3)

2 (0.7) **

5 (1.7) **

Gestational hypertension

No

1832 (93.3)

1338 (96.9)

243 (82.7)

251 (86.9)

Yes

132 (6.7)

43 (3.1)

51 (17.3) **

38 (13.1) **

Gestational diabetes mellitus

No

1702 (86.7)

1208 (87.5)

248 (84.4)

246 (85.1)

Yes

262 (13.3)

173 (12.5)

46 (15.6)

43 (14.9)

Anemia during pregnancy

No

1548 (78.8)

1082 (78.3)

240 (81.6)

226 (78.2)

Yes

416 (21.2)

299 (21.7)

54 (18.4)

63 (21.8)

  1. Note: In the analysis, the preterm and term LBW groups were compared with the normal weight group; *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05