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Table 1 The association of socio-demographic variables with low birth weight

From: Association between maternal lifestyle factors and low birth weight in preterm and term births: a case-control study

Variable Reference Total
(n = 1964)
Normal birth weight
(n = 1381)
Preterm low birth weight
(n = 294)
Term low birth weight
(n = 289)
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Age (years) 19–34 1686 (85.8) 1204 (87.2) 236 (80.3) 246 (85.1)
≤18 36 (1.8) 18 (1.3) 5 (1.7) 13 (4.5) **
≥35 242 (12.3) 159 (11.5) 53 (18.0) ** 30 (10.4) *
Marital status Married 1862 (94.8) 1326 (96.0) 272 (92.5) 264 (91.3)
Unmarried or divorced 102 (5.2) 55 (4.0) 22 (7.5) ** 25 (8.7) **
Education level Primary or below 68 (3.5) 41 (3.0) 12 (4.1) 15 (5.2)
Middle 635 (32.3) 418 (30.3) 109 (37.1) 108 (37.4)
High 662 (33.7) 468 (33.9) 97 (33.0) 97 (33.6) *
Junior college 347 (17.7) 269 (19.5) 39 (13.3) * 39 (13.5) **
Undergraduate or beyond 252 (12.8) 185 (13.4) 37 (12.6) 30 (10.4) **
Economic status (Ұ/month) ≤3000 735 (37.4) 468 (33.9) 132 (44.9) 135 (46.7)
3001–5000 744 (37.9) 538 (39.0) 103 (35.0) ** 103 (35.6) **
5001–7000 275 (14.0) 205 (14.8) 37 (12.6) ** 33 (11.4) **
> 7000 210 (10.7) 170 (12.3) 22 (7.5) ** 18 (6.2) **
Pre-pregnancy BMI 18.5–23.9 1189 (60.5) 870 (63.0) 175 (59.5) 144 (49.8)
< 18.5 573 (29.2) 364 (26.4) 88 (29.9) * 121 (41.9) **
24–27.9 161 (8.2) 119 (8.6) 23 (7.8) * 19 (6.6)
≥28 41 (2.1) 28 (2.0) 8 (2.7) * 5 (1.7)
Parity 1 1121 (57.1) 752 (54.5) 184 (62.6) 185 (64.0)
>1 843 (42.9) 629 (45.5) 110 (37.4) ** 104 (36.0) **
History of LBW No 1889 (96.2) 1354 (98.0) 266 (90.5) 269 (93.1)
Yes 75 (3.8) 27 (2.0) 28 (9.5) ** 20 (6.9) **
Antenatal care ≤4 231 (11.8) 119 (8.6) 68 (23.1) 44 (15.2)
5–9 914 (46.5) 582 (42.1) 190 (64.6) ** 142 (49.1) **
10–14 752 (38.3) 620 (44.9) 34 (11.6) ** 98 (33.9) **
≥15 67 (3.4) 60 (4.3) 2 (0.7) ** 5 (1.7) **
Gestational hypertension No 1832 (93.3) 1338 (96.9) 243 (82.7) 251 (86.9)
Yes 132 (6.7) 43 (3.1) 51 (17.3) ** 38 (13.1) **
Gestational diabetes mellitus No 1702 (86.7) 1208 (87.5) 248 (84.4) 246 (85.1)
Yes 262 (13.3) 173 (12.5) 46 (15.6) 43 (14.9)
Anemia during pregnancy No 1548 (78.8) 1082 (78.3) 240 (81.6) 226 (78.2)
Yes 416 (21.2) 299 (21.7) 54 (18.4) 63 (21.8)
  1. Note: In the analysis, the preterm and term LBW groups were compared with the normal weight group; *p < 0.1; **p < 0.05