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Table 1 Summary of the recent global epidemics and their impacts on the health systems of LMICs

From: Emerging infectious diseases and outbreaks: implications for women’s reproductive health and rights in resource-poor settings

Year, Emerging Pathogen

Impact on the population

WHO’s response

Countries affected/ implications

2003, SARS [18]

8422 cases, 916 deaths in 32 countries over 6 months

Response coordinated by WHO and Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) made up of 115 national health services, academic institutions, technical institutions, and individuals.

WHO estimates that the case fatality ratio of SARS ranges from 0 to 50% with an overall estimate of case fatality of 14–15%

China, Hong Kong, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, and Vietnam were mainly affected.

2009, H1N1 influenza [19]

526,060 cases

6770 deaths

206 countries have eported

Declared Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on April 25, 2009

Declared of Global pandemic on July 1, 2009

Declared as post pandemic on August 10, 2010

East Asia, South East Asia and 21 African nations.

2014, Ebola [20]

28,652 suspected cases,

15,261 laboratory confirmed cases,

11,325 deaths

10 countries affected

Declared PHEIC on August 8, 2014

Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria

Epidemic costed a total of $4.3 billion USD, loss of human resources including health care staff, issues of food security, decrease in cross-border trade.

2015, Zika [21]

86 countries have reported evidence of Zika

Declared PHEIC on February 8, 2016

African Region, Region of the Americas, South-East Asia Region, and Western Pacific Region have autochthonous mosquito-borne transmission.

2019, Covid-19 [1]

184,976 cases, 7529 deaths in 159 countries

Declared PHEIC on January 30, 2020

Declared as Global Pandemic on March 11, 2020

China, Italy, Iran, Spain, UK, Korea, France, Germany, USA, Netherlands are affected in large numbers. Other Asian and South American countries have also been affected.