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Table 1 Summary of the recent global epidemics and their impacts on the health systems of LMICs

From: Emerging infectious diseases and outbreaks: implications for women’s reproductive health and rights in resource-poor settings

Year, Emerging PathogenImpact on the populationWHO’s responseCountries affected/ implications
2003, SARS [18]8422 cases, 916 deaths in 32 countries over 6 monthsResponse coordinated by WHO and Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) made up of 115 national health services, academic institutions, technical institutions, and individuals.WHO estimates that the case fatality ratio of SARS ranges from 0 to 50% with an overall estimate of case fatality of 14–15%
China, Hong Kong, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, and Vietnam were mainly affected.
2009, H1N1 influenza [19]526,060 cases
6770 deaths
206 countries have eported
Declared Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) on April 25, 2009
Declared of Global pandemic on July 1, 2009
Declared as post pandemic on August 10, 2010
East Asia, South East Asia and 21 African nations.
2014, Ebola [20]28,652 suspected cases,
15,261 laboratory confirmed cases,
11,325 deaths
10 countries affected
Declared PHEIC on August 8, 2014Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Mali, Nigeria
Epidemic costed a total of $4.3 billion USD, loss of human resources including health care staff, issues of food security, decrease in cross-border trade.
2015, Zika [21]86 countries have reported evidence of ZikaDeclared PHEIC on February 8, 2016African Region, Region of the Americas, South-East Asia Region, and Western Pacific Region have autochthonous mosquito-borne transmission.
2019, Covid-19 [1]184,976 cases, 7529 deaths in 159 countriesDeclared PHEIC on January 30, 2020
Declared as Global Pandemic on March 11, 2020
China, Italy, Iran, Spain, UK, Korea, France, Germany, USA, Netherlands are affected in large numbers. Other Asian and South American countries have also been affected.