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Table 1 Suggested narrative statements for phrasing conclusions

From: There is life beyond the statistical significance

Certainty of the evidence Effect size Suggested statements for conclusions (replace X with intervention, choose ‘reduce’ or ‘increase’ depending on the direction of the effect, replace ‘outcome’ with name of outcome, include ‘when compared with Y’ when needed)
High Large X results in a large reduction/increase in outcome
Moderate X reduces/increases outcome
X results in a reduction/increase in outcome
Small important effect X reduces/increases outcome slightly
X results in a slight reduction/increase in outcome
Unimportant or no effect X results in little to no difference in outcome
X does not reduce/increase outcome
Moderate Large X likely results in a large reduction/increase in outcome
X probably results in a large reduction/increase in outcome
Moderate X likely reduces/increases outcome
X probably reduces/increases outcome
X likely results in a reduction/increase in outcome
X probably results in a reduction/increase in outcome
Small important effect X probably reduces/increases outcome slightly
X likely reduces/increases outcome slightly
X probably results in a slight reduction/increase in outcome
X likely results in a slight reduction/increase in
Unimportant or no effect X likely results in little to no difference in outcome
X probably results in little to no difference in outcome
X likely does not reduce/increase outcome
X probably does not reduce/increase outcome
Low Large X may result in a large reduction/increase in outcome
The evidence suggests X results in a large reduction/increase in outcome
Moderate X may reduce/increase outcome
The evidence suggests X reduces/increases outcome
X may result in a reduction/increase in outcome
The evidence suggests X results in a reduction/increase in outcome
Small important effect X may reduce/increase outcome slightly
The evidence suggests X reduces/increases outcome slightly
X may result in a slight reduction/increase in outcome
The evidence suggests X results in a slight reduction/increase in outcome
Unimportant or no effect X may result in little to no difference in outcome
The evidence suggests that X results in little to no difference in outcome
X may not reduce/increase outcome
The evidence suggests that X does not reduce/increase outcome
Very low Any effect The evidence is very uncertain about the effect of X on outcome
X may reduce/increase/have little to no effect on outcome but the evidence is very uncertain