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Table 3 Determinants for ‘ever giving birth’ among adolescents stratified by residence

From: Association between socioeconomic status and fertility among adolescents aged 15 to 19: an analysis of the 2013/2014 Zambia Demographic Health Survey (ZDHS)

Characteristic description No % out of n Rural Urban
Adjusted OR p-value Adjusted OR p-value
(95% CI) (95% CI)
Age       
 15 731 19.9     
 16 756 20.6     
 17 667 18.1 2.5 (2.2, 2.9)a  < 0.001 2.1 (1.8, 2.4)  
 18 771 21     
 19 741 20.2     
Wealth (rich vs poor)       
 Rich (4th and 5th) 1,760 48 1   1  
 Poor (1st, 2nd and 3rd) 1,906 52 1.3 (0.8, 2.0) 0.23 2.4 (1.5, 3.7)  
Educational attainment       
 No education 75 2.1     
 Lower primary 259 7.1     
 Upper primary 1,294 35.3 0.7 (0.6, 0.8)   0.5 (0.3, 0.6)  
 Junior secondary 1,347 36.7     
 Senior secondary 682 18.6     
 Tertiary 9 0.3     
Knowledge of contraception       
 Does not know 162 4.4 1    
 Knows 3,504 95.6 4.6 (1.4, 15.2) 0.014   *
Marital status       
 Single 3,098 84.5 1   1  
 Married 568 15.5 8.0 (5.4, 11.9)  < 0.001 5.5 (3.2, 9.4)  < 0.001
Contraception use       
 None 3,278 89.4 1   1  
 At least one method 388 10.6 13.8 (7.4 19.9)  < 0.001 15.8 (8.3, 16.0)  < 0.001
Abortion       
 No 3,606 98.4 1   1  
 Yes 60 1.6 0.3 (0.1, 0.8) 0.02 0.6 (0.2, 9.2) 0.717
  1. n = 3666
  2. aPer year increase
  3. *There were no urban adolescents without knowledge of contraception