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Table 3 National and external factors supporting or countering reform

From: Agenda setting and socially contentious policies: Ethiopia’s 2005 reform of its law on abortion

  National External
Supportive government (ideology, precedents) disposed to resist external interference Supporting  
Active women's rights movement Supporting  
Mission-driven medical profession Supporting  
Ethiopian Orthodox Church and evangelical opposition Countering  
International NGO supporting reform   Supporting
Absence of global consensus on abortion law liberalization   Ambiguous
U.S. government opposition to reform (Mexico City policy)   Countering
Political opportunity structure   
“Open window”: opportunity of Penal Code reform (allied historical moment of democratization) Supporting  
“Open window”: successful momentum behind a broad agenda for improving women's status and well-being Supporting  
Pent-up popular expectation of policy and legal reform after overthrow of the Derg regime (“mood”) Supporting  
Religiously conservative population Countering  
Abortion law reform as part of a package of reforms to improve women's status Supporting  
Frame used: maternal mortality prevention/public health promotion—“women’s right to life” Supporting  
Material conditions   
High maternal mortality due to unsafe abortion and related research base Supporting