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Table 2 Random effect and model fitness showing the influence of community characteristics on optimal ANC visits in Ethiopia, EMDHS 2019

From: Determinants of optimal antenatal care visit among pregnant women in Ethiopia: a multilevel analysis of Ethiopian mini demographic health survey 2019 data

Parameter Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Random effects     
 Variance 1.9* 0.9* 0.7* 0.5*
 PCV (%) Reference 52.6 63.2 73.7
 ICC (%) 37.0 21.2 16.9 12.5
 MOR 3.7 2.5 2.2 1.9
Model fit statistics     
 DIC (−2log likelihood) 4772 4498 4544 4364
  1. Model 1—a model with no covariates; Model 2—only individual-level explanatory variables were included; Model 3—only community-level explanatory variables were included; Model 4 (Combined)—both individual and community level variables were included; *Significant at p < 0.001; PCV proportional change in variance, ICC intra-class correlation coefficient, MOR median odds ratio, DIC deviation information criteria