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Table 2 Comparisons of fetal diaphragm functional parameters among groups

From: Evaluation of fetal diaphragm excursion and thickness in term pregnancies complicated with pre-gestational and gestational diabetes mellitus

  GDM group (n = 35) Pre-gestational DM (n = 35) Control group (n = 35) p-value
DT inspiration (mm) 2.61 ± 0.17ab 2.69 ± 0.17a 2.53 ± 0.18b 0.001
DT expiration (mm) 2.45 ± 0.18ab 2.54 ± 0.15a 2.35 ± 0.20b < 0.001
DE (mm) 5.55 (5.30–5.80)a 5.20 (5.10–5.45)b 5.90 (5.60–6.20)c < 0.001
CDA Inspiration (degrees) 61.71 ± 3.78a 57.86 ± 3.42b 62.09 ± 3.79a < 0.001
CDA expiration (degrees) 50 (46–51) 51 (46–53) 50 (48–52) 0.662
DTF 6.53 (5.56–8.57)ab 5.84 (5–7.14)a 6.67 (5.88–9.43)b 0.045
  1. *Different superscripts indicate statistically significant difference