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Table 3 Comparison of birth data between indigenous adolescents and nonindigenous adolescents, indigenous adult women, and nonindigenous adult women

From: Pregnancy and childbirth outcomes among indigenous adolescents in Guatemala: a cohort study

Birth data Adolescents (10–19) Adults (> 19) Total
Indigenous (1) Nonindigenous (2) (1) vs. (2) Indigenous (3) (1) vs. (3) Nonindigenous (4) (1) vs. (4)
n (%) n (%) p-value n (%) p-Value n (%) p-value
819 (10.18) 813 (10.10) 3324 (41.30) 3092 (38.42) 8048
Mode of birthb 0.476   0.003   0.023 8048
 Vaginal 470 (57.38) 454 (55.84)   1729 (52.02)   1636 (52.91)   
 Cesarean 349 (42.61) 359 (44.16)   1595 (47.98)   1456 (47.09)   
Labor augmentationa 0.112   0.421   0.013 8032
 No 382 (46.76) 347 (42.84)   1604 (48.03)   1293 (41.90)   
 Yes 435 (53.24) 463 (57.16)   1715 (51.67)   1793 (58.10)   
 Missing 2 3   5   6   16
3th trimester/postpartum hemorrhagea 0.555   0.704   0.536 8048
 No 795 (97.07) 785 (96.56)   3218 (96.81)   2988 (96.64)   
 Yes 24 (2.93) 28 (3.44)   106 (3.19)   104 (3.36)   
Complete placentaa 0.257   0.157   0.024 8018
 No 28 (3.43) 20 (2.48)   84 (2.53)   64 (2.08)   
 Yes 788 (96.57) 787 (97.52)   3233 (97.47)   3014 (97.92)   
 Missing 3 6   7   14   30
Postpartum oxytocina 0.108   0.800   < 0.001 8048
 No 280 (34.19) 309 (38.01)   1152 (34.66)   1280 (41.40)   
 Yes 539 (65.81) 504 (61.99)   2172 (65.34)   1812 (56.60)   
Use of antibioticsa 0.885   0.316   0.379 8046
 No 608 (74.24) 601 (73.92)   2522 (75.92)   2248 (72.70)   
 Yes 211 (25.76) 212 (26.08)   800 (24.08)   844 (27.30)   
 Missing 0 0   2   0   2
Vaginal birth positiona 0.191   0.715   0.734 4286
 Sitting 28 (5.96) 16 (3.53)   92 (5.32)   84 (5.14)   
 Squatting 5 (1.06) 4 (0.88)   25 (1.45)   21 (1.28)   
 Lying 437 (92.98) 433 (95.58)   1611 (93.23)   1530 (93.58)   
 Missing 0 1   1   1   3
Episiotomy (vaginal birth)a 0.251   < 0.001   < 0.001  
 No 269 (57.48) 276 (61.20)   1407 (81.42)   1347 (82.49)   4280
 Yes 199 (42.52) 175 (38.80)   321 (18.58)   286 (17.51)   
 Missing 2 3   1   3   9
Vaginal tears (vaginal birth)b 0.387   0.518   0.350 4160
 No 442 (98.00) 428 (97.05)   1634 (97.44)   1542 (96.92)   
 Grade 1 6 (1.33) 8 (1.81)   32 (1.91)   33 (2.07)   
 Grade 2 2 (0.44) 5 (1.13)   10 (0.60)   15 (0.94)   
 Grade 3 1 (0.22) 0 (0)   1 (0.06)   1 (0.06)   
 Missing 19 13   52   45   129
Analgesiaa 0.256   0.377   0.016 8048
 No 714 (87.18) 693 (85.24)   2935 (88.30)   2590 (83.76)   
 Yes 105 (12.82) 120 (14.76)   389 (11.70)   502 (16.24)   
Local anesthesiaa 0.378   < 0.001   < 0.001 8048
 No 702 (85.71) 709 (87.21)   3131 (94.19)   2863 (92.59)   
 Yes 117 (14.29) 104 (12.79)   193 (5.81)   229 (7.41)   
General anesthesiaa 0.820   0.735   0.905 8031
 No 805 (98.65) 798 (98.52)   3266 (98.49)   3049 (98.71)   
 Yes 11 (1.35) 12 (1.48)   50 (1.51)   40 (1.29)   
 Missing 3 3   8   3   17
Blood transfusionb 1.000   0.804   0.779 8041
 No 813 (99.51) 805 (99.51)   3303 (99.37)   3077 (99.55)   
 Yes 4 (0.49) 4 (0.49)   21 (0.63)   14 (0.45)   
 Missing 2 4   0   1   7
Attended the birtha 0.212   0.372   0.978 8010
 Physician 693 (84.72) 702 (86.88)   2842 (85.94)   2608 (84.76)   
 Other professional 125 (15.28) 106 (13.12)   465 (14.06)   469 (15.24)   
 Missing 1 5   17   15   38
  1. The reference group is always indigenous adolescents (Group 1)
  2. Analyzed with: aChi square test, bFisher’s exact test