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Table 4 Comparison of neonatal outcomes among indigenous adolescents and nonindigenous adolescents, indigenous adult women, and nonindigenous adult women

From: Pregnancy and childbirth outcomes among indigenous adolescents in Guatemala: a cohort study

Neonate data Adolescents (10–19y) Adult women (> 19y) Total
Indigenous (1) Nonindigenous (2) (1) vs. (2) Indigenous (3) (1) vs. (3) Nonindigenous (4) (1) vs. (4)
n (%) n (%) p-value n (%) p-value n (%) p-value
819 (10.18) 813 (10.10) 3324 (41.30) 3092 (38.42) 8048
Status at birthb 0.123   0.161   0.133 8047
 Alive 817 (99.76) 808 (99.38)   3299 (99.28)   3074 (99.42)   
 Any fetal death 1 (0.12) 5 (0.51)   21 (0.63)   16 (0.52)   
 Death Ignoredc 1 (0.12) 0 (0)   3 (0.09)   2 (0.06)   
 Missing 0 0   1   0   1
Birth weight (g)a 0.009   0.035   0.145 8048
 < 2500 114 (13.92) 152 (18.70)   463 (13.93)   456 (14.75)   
 2500–3999 705 (86.08) 661 (81.30)   2834 (85.26)   2623 (84.23)   
 ≥ 4000 0 (0) 0 (0)   27 (0.81)   13 (0.42)   
Gestational age (weeks)a 0.156   0.976   0.212 8048
 < 37 67 (8.18) 83 (10.21)   273 (8.21)   297 (9.61)   
 ≥ 37 752 (91.82) 730 (89.79)   3051 (91.79)   2795 (90.39)   
Apgar 5th mina 0.027   0.009   0.007 8043
 < 7 4 (0.49) 13 (1.60)   57 (1.72)   55 (1.78)   
 ≥ 7 814 (99.51) 799 (98.40)   3265 (98.28)   2036 (98.22)   
 Missing 1 1   2   1   5
Resuscitation/oxygena 0.697   0.276   0.126 8044
 No 805 (98.41) 800 (98.64)   3251 (97.80)   3014 (97.51)   
 Yes 13 (1.59) 11 (1.36)   73 (2.20)   77 (2.49)   
 Missing 1 2   0   1   4
Resuscitation/intubationa 0.177   0.021   0.008  
 No 816 (99.76) 806 (99.26)   3287 (98.89)   3050 (98.67)   8045
 Yes 2 (0.24) 6 (0.74)   37 (1.11)   41 (1.33)   
 Missing 1 1   0   1   3
Newborn’s receptiona 0.205   0.686   0.712 7974
 Physician 804 (98.77) 797 (99.38)   3256 (98.94)   3034 (98.92)   
 Other 10 (1.23) 5 (0.62)   35 (1.06)   33 (1.08)   
 Missing 5 11   33   25   74
Birth defectsb 0.623   1.000   0.477 8042
 No 817 (99.88) 810 (99.75)   3316 (99.76)   3078 (99.68)   
 Yes 1 (0.12) 2 (0.25)   8 (0.24)   10 (0.32)   
 Missing 1 1   0   4   6
Referredb 0.558   0.637   0.271 7945
 Mother-baby room 791 (97.53) 786 (97.64)   3197 (97.41)   2985 (97.97)   
 Neonatal intensive care 18 (2.22) 19 (2.36)   69 (2.10)   60 (1.97)   
 Other hospital 2 (0.25) 0 (0)   16 (0.49)   2 (0.07)   
 Missing 8 8   42   45   103
  1. The reference group is always indigenous adolescents (Group 1)
  2. Analyzed with: aChi square test, bFisher’s Exact test; cdeath ignored: moment of fetal or newborn death was ignored