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Table 3 Exploratory factor analysis of the 4th edition protocol (n = 176, Group 1)

From: Development of a scale to evaluate negative menstrual attitudes among Nepalese women

Item M (SD) Factor
I II III
Factor 1 Natural event (5 items, reversed item) α = 0.82
 17. I think menstruation is a sign of good health 2.0 (0.6) 0.848 0.008 − 0.058
 16. I think menstruation is phenomenon which keep all of life 2.0 (0.8) 0.799 − 0.029 − 0.137
 15. I think menstruation is a way to inform me of my health condition 2.0 (0.6) 0.722 0.047 − 0.055
 14. I think I am more strongly aware of my health condition than usual by menstruation 2.0 (0.8) 0.570 − 0.017 − 0.370
 13. I think menstruation is realized womanhood 2.0 (0.7) 0.496 0.063 − 0.179
Factor 2 Debilitating event (5 items) α = 0.76
 5. I think I can’t do as usual behaviors during menstruation 2.0 (1.2) 0.188 0.756 − 0.321
 4. I think unhealthier than usual during menstruation 3.0 (1.1) 0.033 0.709 0.216
 9. I can’t feel good during menstruation 2.0 (1.2) − 0.219 0.569 0.343
 6. I think it is better to avoid certain behaviors during menstruation 3.0 (1.2) − 0.014 0.558 0.022
 1. I think more tired than usual during menstruation 3.0 (1.2) − 0.033 0.434 0.659
Factor 3 Bothersome event (5 items) α = 0.69
 10. I think men have advantage in not having menstruation 3.0 (1.3) − 0.434 0.077 0.520
 2. I think I expect extra consideration from people around me during menstruation 4.0 (1.1) − 0.255 0.415 0.449
 3. I feel that changes in physical condition during menstruation are greater than changes in normal physical condition 4.0 (1.1) − 0.255 0.415 0.449
 8. I think menstruation is something I just have to put up with 4.0 (0.8) − 0.195 − 0.089 0.448
 11. I think I hope it will be possible to get a short menstrual period 4.0 (1.2) − 0.401 0.348 0.406
  1. Factor loadings greater than 0.40 are in bold; protocol 4th edition
  2. M mean, SD standard deviation