Das Gupta M, Engelman R, Levy J, Luchsinger G, Merrick T, Rosen JE. State of world population 2014 the power of 1,8 billion adolescents, Youth and the Transformation of the Future, vol. 136; 2014.
Patton GC, Sawyer SM, Santelli JS, Ross DA, Afifi R, Allen NB, Arora M, Azzopardi P, Baldwin W, Bonell C, Kakuma R, Kennedy E, Mahon J, McGovern T, Mokdad AH, Patel V, Petroni S, Reavley N, Taiwo K, Waldfogel J, Wickremarathne D, Barroso C, Bhutta Z, Fatusi AO, Mattoo A, Diers J, Fang J, Ferguson J, Ssewamala F, Viner RM. Our future: a lancet commission on adolescent health and wellbeing. Lancet. 2016;6736:3-57.
Campbell OMR, Benova L, Macleod D, Goodman C, Footman K, Pereira AL, Lynch CA. Who, what, where: an analysis of private sector family planning provision in 57 low- and middle-income countries. Trop Med Int Heal. 2015;0:1–18.
Edilberto L, Mengjia L: Adolescent pregnancy: a review of the evidence. 2013.
Woog V, Singh S, Browne A, Philbin J: Adolescent Women’s need for and use of sexual and reproductive health Services in Developing Countries. New York: Guttmacher Institute; 2015.
CHD F, Sachdev HS, Osmond C, Restrepo-Mendez MC, Victora C, Martorell R, Stein AD, Sinha S, Tandon N, Adair L, Bas I, Norris S, Richter LM, Barros FC, Gigante D, Hallal PC, Horta BL, Ramirez-Zea M, Bhargava SK, Ramakrishnan L, Prabhakaran D, Reddy KS, Khalil A, Prabhakaran P, Dey Biswas SK, Ramji S, Borja J, Lee N, Dahly DL, Kuzawa CW, et al. Association between maternal age at childbirth and child and adult outcomes in the offspring: a prospective study in five low-income and middle-income countries (COHORTS collaboration). Lancet Glob Heal. 2015;3:e366–77.
Paranjothy S, Broughton H, Adappa R, Fone D. Teenage pregnancy: who suffers? Arch Dis Child. 2009;94:239–45.
Conde-Agudelo A, Belizán JM, Lammers C. Maternal-perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with adolescent pregnancy in Latin America: cross-sectional study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192:342–9.
de Vienne CM, Creveuil C, Dreyfus M. Does young maternal age increase the risk of adverse obstetric, fetal and neonatal outcomes: a cohort study. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009;147:151–6.
Gibbs CM, Wendt A, Peters S, Hogue CJ. The impact of early age at first childbirth on maternal and infant health. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2012;26(SUPPL. 1):259–84.
World Health Organization: Adolescent pregnancy fact sheet. 2014.
Erulkar AS, Onoka CJ, Phiri A. What is youth-friendly? Adolescents’ preferences for reproductive health Services in Kenya and Zimbabwe. Afr J Reprod Health. 2005;9:51–8.
Geary RS, Webb EL, Clarke L, Norris SA. Evaluating youth-friendly health services: young people’s perspectives from a simulated client study in urban South Africa. Glob Health Action. 2015;8:26080.
Mmari KN, Magnani RJ. Does making clinic-based reproductive health services more youth-friendly increase service use by adolescents? Evidence from Lusaka, Zambia. J Adolesc Health. 2003;33:259–70.
Hayes RJ, Changalucha J, Ross DA, Gavyole A, Todd J, Obasi AIN, Plummer ML, Wight D, Mabey DC, Grosskurth H. The MEMA kwa Vijana project: design of a community randomised trial of an innovative adolescent sexual health intervention in rural Tanzania. Contemp Clin Trials. 2005;26:430–42.
Tylee A, Haller DM, Graham T, Churchill R, Sanci LA. Youth-friendly primary-care services: how are we doing and what more needs to be done? Lancet. 2007;369:1565–73.
Bankole A, Malarcher S. Removing barriers to adolescents’ access to contraceptive information and services. Stud Fam Plan. 2010;41:117–24.
Nalwadda G, Mirembe F, Byamugisha J, Faxelid E. Persistent high fertility in Uganda: young people recount obstacles and enabling factors to use of contraceptives. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:530.
Williamson LM, Parkes A, Wight D, Petticrew M, Hart GJ. Limits to modern contraceptive use among young women in developing countries: a systematic review of qualitative research. Reprod Health. 2009;6:3.
Biddlecom AE, Munthali A, Singh S, Woog V. Adolescents’ views of and preferences for sexual and reproductive health services in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi and Uganda. Afr J Reprod Health. 2007;11:99–100.
Ochako R, Mbondo M, Aloo S, Kaimenyi S, Thompson R, Temmerman M, Kays M. Barriers to modern contraceptive methods uptake among young women in Kenya: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:1483.
Wachira J, Kamanda A, Embleton L, Naanyu V, Ayuku D, Braitstein P. “Pregnancy has its advantages”: the voices of street connected children and youth in Eldoret, Kenya. PLoS One. 2016;11:1–17.
Dangat CM, Njau B. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on family planning services among adolescents in secondary schools in Hai District, northern Tanzania. Tanzan J Health Res. 2013;15:1–8.
Adams MK, Salazar E, Lundgren R. Tell them you are planning for the future: gender norms and family planning among adolescents in northern Uganda. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2013;123(SUPPL.1):e7–e10.
Irani L, Speizer I, Barrington C. Attitudes, beliefs and norms relating to contraceptive use among young migrant and non-migrant adults in urban Dar es salaam, Tanzania. Glob Public Health. 2013;8:1048–62.
Nsubuga H, Sekandi JN, Sempeera H, Makumbi FE. Contraceptive use, knowledge, attitude, perceptions and sexual behavior among female university students in Uganda: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Womens Health. 2016;16:6.
Rasch V, Silberschmidt M, Mchumvu Y, Mmary V. Adolescent girls with illegally induced abortion in Dar es salaam: the discrepancy between sexual behaviour and lack of access to contraception. Reprod Health Matters. 2000;8:52–62.
Godia PM, Olenja JM, Hofman JJ, van den Broek N. Young people’s perception of sexual and reproductive health services in Kenya. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014;14:172.
Graffy J, Goodhart C, Sennett K, Kamusiime G, Tukamushaba H. Young people’s perspectives on the adoption of preventive measures for HIV/AIDS, malaria and family planning in south-West Uganda: focus group study. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:1022.
Mchome Z, Richards E, Nnko S, Dusabe J, Mapella E, Obasi A. A “mystery client” evaluation of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services in health facilities from two regions in Tanzania. PLoS One. 2015;10:1–11.
Godia PM, Olenja JM, Lavussa JA, Quinney D, Hofman JJ, van den Broek N. Sexual reproductive health service provision to young people in Kenya; health service providers’ experiences. BMC Health Serv Res. 2013;13:476.
Warenius LU, Faxelid EA, Chishimba PN, Musandu JO, Ong’any AA, Nissen EB-M. Midwife Attitudes Towards Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs in Kenya and Zambia. Reprod Health Matters. 2006;14:119–28.
Tumlinson K, Okigbo CC, Speizer IS. Provider barriers to family planning access in urban Kenya. Contraception. 2015;92:143–51.
Dusabe J, Mchome Z, Nnko S, Changalucha J, Obasi A. “There are bugs in condoms”: Tanzanian close-to-community providers’ ability to offer effective adolescent reproductive health services. J Fam Plan Reprod Heal Care. 2015;41:e2.
Nalwadda G, Tumwesigye NM, Faxelid E, Byamugisha J, Mirembe F. Quality of care in contraceptive services provided to young people in two Ugandan districts: a simulated client study. PLoS One. 2011;6:e27908.
World Population Prospects, the 2015 Revision [https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Download/Standard/Population/].
UNDESA. Definition of youth, United Nations Dep econ soc Aff; 2014. p. 1–3.
Bradley SEK, Croft TN, Fishel JD. Revising unmet need for family planning: DHS analytical studies no. 25; 2012. p. 63.
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division: World population prospects: the 2015 revision, key findings and advance tables. 2015.
Zou G. A modified Poisson regression approach to prospective studies with binary data. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;159:702–6.
Gertler PJ, Martinez S, Premand P, Rawlings LB, Vermeersch CMJ: Impact evaluation in practice. 2011.
Ministry of Planning & National Development, Ministry of Health, Health M of. Kenya adolescent reproductive health development policy. Nairobi; 2003.
Population Reference Bureau. Kenya adolescent reproductive health and development policy: implementation assessment report; 2013. p. 1–40.
Ministry of Health: National guidelines for provision of adolescent youth-friendly services in Kenya. Natl Guidel Provis Adolesc Youth -Friendly Serv Kenya 2005:40.
Ministry of Youth Affairs: Kenya national youth policy. 2006.
Ministry of Youth Affairs: Ministry of State for youth affairs strategic plan. 2007.
FHI360/PROGRESS, Ministry of Health. Adolescent and youth sexual and reproductive health: taking stock in Kenya. Nairobi; 2011.
Askew I, Chege J, Njue C: A multi-Sectoral approach to providing reproductive health information and services to young people in western Kenya: Kenya adolescent reproductive health project. 2004.
Austrian K, Muthengi E, Mumah J, Soler-Hampejsek E, Kabiru CW, Abuya B, Maluccio JA. The adolescent girls initiative-Kenya (AGI-K): study protocol. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:210.
Solo J. Family planning in Rwanda. North Carolina: Chapel Hill; 2008.
Government of Rwanda. Economic development and poverty reduction strategy, 2008–2012, vol. 2007. Kigali.
FHI360: Rwanda : adding re-supply of hormonal contraceptive methods to community health worker tasks does not increase their workload. 2010.
Wesson J, Munyambanza E, Habrugira H, Nyinawamahoro A, Nzeyimana A, Mugeni C, Ngabo F: Introducing community-based provision of family planning Services in Rwanda: a process evaluation of the first six months of implementation. 2011.
National Institute of statistics of Rwanda (NISR), Rwanda demographic and health survey 2014–15. Rockville; 2015.
Lu C, Chin B, Lewandowski JL, Basinga P, Hirschhorn LR, Hill K, Murray M, Binagwaho A. Towards universal health coverage: an evaluation of Rwanda Mutuelles in its first eight years. PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e39282.
MoH: Rwanda adolescent sexual & reproductive health rights policy. 2012.
Binaghwaho A: Report on adolescent health and HIV Services in Rwanda in the context of their human rights. 2009.
Montagu D, Goodman C. Prohibit, constrain, encourage, or purchase: how should we engage with the private health-care sector? Lancet. 2016;6736:1–9.
Rutta E. Medicines in health Systems : advancing access, affordability, and appropriate use. Alliance Heal Policy Syst Res Flagsh Rep. 2014;2014:1–20.
Wafula FN, Goodman CA. Are interventions for improving the quality of services provided by specialized drug shops effective in sub-Saharan Africa? A systematic review of the literature. Int J Qual Heal Care. 2010;22:316–23.
Hutchinson PL, Do M, Agha S. Measuring client satisfaction and the quality of family planning services: a comparative analysis of public and private health facilities in Tanzania, Kenya and Ghana. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:203.
Kakoko DC, Ketting E, Kamazima SR, Ruben R. Provision of family planning Services in Tanzania: a comparative analysis of public and private facilities. Afr J Reprod Health. 2012;16:140–8.
PMA2020: PMA2015/UGANDA-R2: performance, monitoring & accountability 2020. 2015.
Uganda Ministry of Health, Uganda Bureau of Statistics, Macro International Inc. Uganda service provision assessment survey 2007: key findings on family planning, maternal and child health, and malaria. Kampala; 2007.
Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics, Macro International Inc. Tanzania service provision assessment survey 2006, vol. 2007. Dar es Salaam.
Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MoHSW) [Tanzania Mainland], Ministry of Health (MoH) [Zanzibar], National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), (OCGS) O of the CGS, ICF International. Tanzania service provision assessment survey 2014–2015. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania and Rockville, Maryland; 2016.
Sedgh G, Hussain R. Reasons for contraceptive nonuse among women having unmet need for contraception in developing countries. Stud Fam Plan. 2014;45:151–69.
Blanc AK, Tsui AO, Croft TN, Trevitt JL. Patterns and trends in adolescents’ contraceptive use and discontinuation in developing countries and comparisons with adult women. Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2009;35:63–71.
Berer M. Dual protection: more needed than Practised or understood. Reprod Health Matters. 2006;14:162–70.
Rivera R, Cabral de Mello M, Johnson SL, Chandra-Mouli V. Contraception for adolescents: social, clinical and service-delivery considerations. Int J Gynecol Obstet. 2001;75:149–63.
Mensch BS, Hewett PC, Erulkar AS. The reporting of sensitive behavior by adolescents: a methodological experiment in Kenya. Demography. 2003;40:247–68.
Wodon Q, Nguyen MC, Tsimpo C. Market share of faith-inspired and private secular health care providers in Africa: comparing DHS and multi-purpose integrated surveys. In: Olivier J, Wodon Q, editors. The role of faith-inspired health care providers in sub-Saharan Africa and public-private partnerships: strengthening the evidence for faith-inspired health engagement in Africa, volume 1. Washington: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank; 2012. p. 27–40.
Barden-O’Fallon J. Availability of family planning services and quality of counseling by faith-based organizations: a three country comparative analysis. Reprod Health. 2017;14:57.
Kagawa RC, Anglemyer A, Montagu D. The scale of faith based organization participation in health service delivery in developing countries: systemic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2012;7:e48457.
Footman K, Benova L, Goodman C, Macleod D, Lynch CA, Penn-Kekana L, Campbell OMR. Using multi-country household surveys to understand who provides reproductive and maternal health services in low- and middle-income countries: a critical appraisal of the demographic and health surveys. Trop Med Int Heal. 2015;20:589–606.
Anderson R, Panchaud C, Singh S, Watson K. Demystifying data: a guide to using evidence to improve young People’s sexual health and rights. New York: Guttmacher Institute; 2013.
Data [http://dhsprogram.com/data/]. Accessed 1 Sept 2016.