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  1. This study aimed to understand the influence of health beliefs, demographic factors, and health characteristics on the intention to undergo Pap smear testing among women in rural areas of Indonesia.

    Authors: Sumarmi Sumarmi, Yu-Yun Hsu, Ya-Min Cheng and Shu-Hsin Lee

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:138

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  2. Despite six decades of official family planning programme, the use of modern contraceptive method remained low in India. The discontinuation of modern spacing method (DMSM) has also increased from 42.3% in 200...

    Authors: Soumya Ranjan Nayak, Sanjay K. Mohanty, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra and Umakanta Sahoo

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:137

    Content type: Research

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  3. Prenatal depression may have adverse health effects on mothers and their offspring. Perceived stress is an important risk factor for depression during pregnancy. Studies have shown that both perceived stress a...

    Authors: Anisma R. Gokoel, Firoz Abdoel Wahid, Wilco C. W. R. Zijlmans, Arti Shankar, Ashna D. Hindori-Mohangoo, Hannah H. Covert, Meerte-Sigrid MacDonald-Ottevanger, Maureen Y. Lichtveld and Emily W. Harville

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:136

    Content type: Research

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  4. Despite the global agreements on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health and rights, access to and utilisation of these services among the youth/adolescents remain unsatisfactory in low- and middle-income ...

    Authors: Lesley Rose Ninsiima, Isabel Kazanga Chiumia and Rawlance Ndejjo

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:135

    Content type: Review

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  5. The use of reproductive health (RH) services is important to promote RH. However, little is known about RH services in rural areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries. China is the most populous co...

    Authors: Jing Yue, Yang Luo, Chen Xu, Si Qin, Yanting Meng, Ling Fan and Min Nie

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:134

    Content type: Research

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  6. Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a global problem affecting millions of pregnant women, including in mainland China. These women are at high risk of Type II diabetes (T2DM). Cost-effective and clinically effectiv...

    Authors: Jie Shang, Amanda Henry, Puhong Zhang, Huan Chen, Kelly Thompson, Xiaodong Wang, Na Liu, Jiani Zhang, Yan Liu, Jianbo Jin, Xiongfei Pan, Xue Yang and Jane E. Hirst

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:133

    Content type: Research

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  7. Antenatal screening for HIV, syphilis and HBV has been successfully implemented in The Netherlands, but data on other STI among pregnant women or male partners are limited. Our objectives: (i) to assess the pr...

    Authors: Eline L. M. Op de Coul, Demi Peek, Yolanda W. M. van Weert, Servaas A. Morré, Ingrid Rours, Chantal Hukkelhoven, Ank de Jonge, Birgit van Benthem and Monique Pereboom

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:132

    Content type: Research

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  8. Children under 18 years old constituted more than half (52%) of the refugee population in 2017. Adolescent Sexual and reproductive health is an essential component of primary health care. Yet, not every refuge...

    Authors: Paul Bukuluki, Peter Kisaakye, Hadijah Mwenyango and George Palattiyil

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:131

    Content type: Research

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  9. The war in Syria caused the forced displacement of millions of Syrians to neighboring countries. Lebanon is the host country with the largest overall number of Syrian refugees per capita. Adolescent refugee gi...

    Authors: Rayan Korri, Sabine Hess, Guenter Froeschl and Olena Ivanova

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:130

    Content type: Research

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  10. Child marriage is a fundamental violation of human rights and a threat to access to education, sexual and reproductive health care, and employment. It also threatens freedom from violence, reproductive rights,...

    Authors: Bright Opoku Ahinkorah, Joshua Okyere, John Elvis Hagan Jr, Abdul-Aziz Seidu, Richard Gyan Aboagye and Sanni Yaya

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:128

    Content type: Commentary

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Reproductive Health 2021 18:140

  11. The Global Financing Facility (GFF) offers an opportunity to close the financing gap that holds back gains in women, children’s and adolescent health. However, very little work exists examining GFF practice, p...

    Authors: Asha S. George, Tanya Jacobs, Mary V. Kinney, Annie Haakenstad, Neha S. Singh, Kumanan Rasanathan and Mickey Chopra

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18(Suppl 1):124

    Content type: Research

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  12. The annual collection of fertility, marriage, sexual behaviour, and contraceptive use data in the nationally representative rounds of Performance Monitoring and Accountability (PMA) surveys in sub-Saharan Afri...

    Authors: Rornald Muhumuza Kananura, Peter Waiswa, Dessalegn Y. Melesse, Cheikh Faye and Ties Boerma

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18(Suppl 1):121

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  13. In sub-Saharan Africa HIV transmission is a major challenge in adolescents, especially among girls and those living in urban settings. Major international efforts have aimed at reducing sexual transmission of ...

    Authors: Réka Maulide Cane, Dessalegn Y. Melesse, Nkomba Kayeyi, Adom Manu, Yohannes Dibaba Wado, Aluisio Barros and Ties Boerma

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18(Suppl 1):120

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  14. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health and human rights issue that affects millions of women and girls. While disaggregated national statistics are crucial to assess inequalities, little evi...

    Authors: Yohannes Dibaba Wado, Martin K. Mutua, Abdu Mohiddin, Macellina Y. Ijadunola, Cheikh Faye, Carolina V. N. Coll, Aluisio J. D. Barros and Caroline W. Kabiru

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18(Suppl 1):119

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  15. Adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) is a major public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, inequalities in ASRH have received less attention than many other public health priority ...

    Authors: Dessalegn Y. Melesse, Réka M. Cane, Aveneni Mangombe, Macellina Y. Ijadunola, Adom Manu, Eniola Bamgboye, Abdu Mohiddin, Rornald M. Kananura, Elsie Akwara, Elsabé du Plessis, Yohannes D. Wado, Martin K. Mutua, Wubegzier Mekonnen, Cheikh M. Faye, Sarah Neal and Ties Boerma

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18(Suppl 1):117

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  16. The use of modern contraception has increased in much of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, the extent to which changes have occurred across the wealth spectrum among adolescents is not well known. We examine ...

    Authors: Martin K. Mutua, Yohannes D. Wado, Monica Malata, Caroline W. Kabiru, Elsie Akwara, Dessalegn Y. Melesse, Ndèye Awa Fall, Carolina V. N. Coll, Cheikh Faye and Aluisio J. D. Barros

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18(Suppl 1):116

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  17. Quality of essential newborn care is defined as the extent of health care services to improve the health of newborns. However, studies are scarce regarding the quality of newborn care implementation. Therefore...

    Authors: Tadesse Guadu Delele, Gashaw Andargie Biks, Solomon Mekonnen Abebe and Zemene Tigabu Kebede

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:127

    Content type: Research

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  18. There is growing recognition of the need for interventions that effectively involve men and boys to promote family planning behaviours. Evidence suggests that the most effective behavioural interventions in th...

    Authors: Martin Robinson, Áine Aventin, Jennifer Hanratty, Eimear Ruane-McAteer, Mark Tomlinson, Mike Clarke, Friday Okonofua and Maria Lohan

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:126

    Content type: Review

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  19. Sexual and reproductive health and rights are critical entitlements best supported through human rights-based approaches empowering rights-holders to claim their rights and duty bearers to fulfil their obligat...

    Authors: Majel McGranahan, Elizabeth Bruno-McClung, Joselyn Nakyeyune, Derrick Aaron Nsibirwa, Christopher Baguma, Christopher Ogwang, Francis Serunjogi, Judith Nakalembe, Marianna Kayaga, Sharifah Sekalala and Oyinlola Oyebode

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:125

    Content type: Research

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  20. Viral detection in seminal fluid indicates their potential for both sexual transmission and impairment of reproductive health. Review of the mechanistic entry, sexual transmission and viral impacts for patient...

    Authors: James Frederick W. Pike, Emily L. Polley, David Y. Pritchett, Arnav Lal, Blake A. Wynia, William E. Roudebush and Renee J. Chosed

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:123

    Content type: Review

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  21. High fertility rates and unintended pregnancies are public health concerns of lower and middle income countries such as Ethiopia. Long acting contraceptives (LACs) take the lion’s share in reducing unintended ...

    Authors: Oumer Abdulkadir Ebrahim, Ejigu Gebeye Zeleke and Atalay Goshu Muluneh

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:122

    Content type: Research

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  22. Delivery is a critical moment for pregnant women and babies, and careful monitoring is essential throughout the delivery process. The partograph is a useful tool for monitoring and assessing labour progress as...

    Authors: Mitsuaki Matsui, Yuko Saito, Rithy Po, Bunsreng Taing, Chamnan Nhek, Rathavy Tung, Yoko Masaki and Azusa Iwamoto

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:115

    Content type: Research

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  23. Health care for stigmatized reproductive practices in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) often remains illegal; when legal, it is often inadequate, difficult to find and / or stigmatizing, which results ...

    Authors: Clémentine Rossier, Angela Marchin, Caron Kim and Bela Ganatra

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:114

    Content type: Review

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  24. Adolescent Syrian refugee girls in Lebanon are thought to experience a disproportionate risk of poor sexual and reproductive health, related in part to conflict and displacement. The purpose of this qualitativ...

    Authors: Sasha Abdallah Fahme, Maia Sieverding and Sawsan Abdulrahim

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:113

    Content type: Research

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  25. Women are at a higher risk for depression progression, especially during pregnancy. The current study purposed to investigate depression, anxiety, and stress levels of pregnant mothers in the initial stage of ...

    Authors: Najmeh Maharlouei, Pedram Keshavarz, Niloufar Salemi and Kamran B. Lankarani

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:111

    Content type: Research

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  26. Pre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity globally. Planned delivery between 34+0 and 36+6 weeks may reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes but is yet to be evaluated in a low ...

    Authors: Alice Beardmore-Gray, Nicola Vousden, Sergio A. Silverio, Umesh Charantimath, Geetanjali Katageri, Mrutyunjaya Bellad, Sebastian Chinkoyo, Bellington Vwalika, Shivaprasad Goudar, Jane Sandall, Lucy C. Chappell and Andrew H. Shennan

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:110

    Content type: Research

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  27. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is the inflammation of the adnexa of the uterus, that mainly manifests in a subclinical/chronic context and goes largely underreported. However, it poses a major threat to wom...

    Authors: Oqba Al-kuran, Lama Al-Mehaisen, Hamza Alduraidi, Naser Al-Husban, Balqees Attarakih, Anas Sultan, Zeina Othman, Sanal AlShárat, Shoug AlHilali, Nadia Alkouz, Noura Alibrahim and Wafaa AlMusallam

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:109

    Content type: Research

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  28. To our knowledge, no studies exist on the influence of nomadic pastoralist women’s networks on their reproductive and sexual health (RSH), including uptake of modern family planning (FP).

    Authors: Leah Kenny, Rahma Hassan, Loraine J. Bacchus, Matthew Smith, Bettina Shell-Duncan, Nana Apenem Dagadu, Angela Muriuki, Abdullahi Hussein Aden, Ibrahim Abdirizak Jelle, Beniamino Cislaghi and Mazeda Hossain

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:108

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  29. Few studies explore what it means to be an adolescent parent in the Philippines from the young parents’ perspective. This study sought to improve understanding of how adolescent mothers and young fathers exper...

    Authors: Christine Marie Habito, Alison Morgan and Cathy Vaughan

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:107

    Content type: Research

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  30. Male involvement in maternal healthcare has been widely recognized as essential for positive health outcomes for expectant mothers and their unborn babies. However, few studies have explored men’s experiences ...

    Authors: Gloria Abena Ampim, Astrid Blystad, Albert Kpoor and Haldis Haukanes

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:106

    Content type: Research

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  31. Youth ages 15 to 24, who comprise a large portion of sub-Saharan Africa, face a higher burden of unmet contraceptive need than adults. Despite increased international and national commitments to improving youn...

    Authors: Lynette Ouma, Burcu Bozkurt, Jill Chanley, Christine Power, Ronald Kakonge, Oluwatosin C. Adeyemi, Ramya Jawahar Kudekallu and Elizabeth Leahy Madsen

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:105

    Content type: Research

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  32. Sexual and reproductive health and right of adolescents is a global priority as the reproductive choices made by them have a massive impact on their health, wellbeing, education, and economy. Teenage pregnancy...

    Authors: Alemi Kebede Olika, Sena Belina Kitila, Yonas Biratu Terfa and Ayantu Kebede Olika

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:104

    Content type: Research

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  33. The laws governing abortion access vary across Europe. Even in countries with relatively liberal laws, numerous barriers to abortion access exist. In response to these barriers, evidence suggests that people l...

    Authors: Camille Garnsey, Giulia Zanini, Silvia De Zordo, Joanna Mishtal, Alexandra Wollum and Caitlin Gerdts

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:103

    Content type: Research

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  34. In settings where HIV prevalence is high, management of sexual and reproductive health is critical to reducing HIV transmission and maternal mortality. Integration of family planning with HIV services is appro...

    Authors: Dereje Bayissa Demissie and Rose Mmusi-Phetoe

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:102

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  35. Menstrual irregularity is a common problem among women aged from 21 to 25 years. Previously published work on menstrual irregularity used inconsistent definition which results in a difference in prevalence. Th...

    Authors: Abayneh Birlie Zeru, Enguday Demeke Gebeyaw and Esubalew Tesfahun Ayele

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:101

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  36. Preconception care (PCC) is a series of biomedical, mental, and psycho-social health services provided to women and a couple before pregnancy and throughout subsequent pregnancies for desired outcomes. Million...

    Authors: Aklilu Habte, Samuel Dessu and Dereje Haile

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:100

    Content type: Research

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  37. Our objectives were to analyze how pregnancy outcomes varied by cesarean birth as compared to vaginal birth across varying interpregnancy intervals (IPI) and determine if IPI modified mode of birth.

    Authors: Margo S. Harrison, Ana Garces, Lester Figueroa, Jamie Westcott, Michael Hambidge and Nancy F. Krebs

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:99

    Content type: Research

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  38. Uterine fundal pressure involves a birth attendant pushing on the woman’s uterine fundus to assist vaginal birth. It is used in some clinical settings, though guidelines recommend against it. This systematic r...

    Authors: Elise Farrington, Mairead Connolly, Laura Phung, Alyce N. Wilson, Liz Comrie-Thomson, Meghan A. Bohren, Caroline S. E. Homer and Joshua P. Vogel

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:98

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  39. A disproportionately high rate of maternal deaths is reported in developing and underdeveloped regions of the world. Much of this is associated with social and cultural factors, which form barriers to women ut...

    Authors: Sonia Omer, Rubeena Zakar, Muhammad Zakria Zakar and Florian Fischer

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:97

    Content type: Research

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  40. Despite evidence from recent Demographic Health Surveys that show 98% of the adult Pakistani population have an awareness of at least one modern contraceptive method, only 25% of married couples in Pakistan us...

    Authors: Mariyam Sarfraz, Saima Hamid, Patrick Rawstorne, Moazzam Ali and Rohan Jayasuriya

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:96

    Content type: Research

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  41. Innovations to increase access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information, goods, and services are needed, particularly in low-income settings. This study assessed the utilization of a mobile phone ap...

    Authors: Robinah Nalwanga, Elly Nuwamanya, Afra Nuwasiima, Janet U. Babigumira, Francis T. Asiimwe and Joseph B. Babigumira

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:95

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  42. With a fertility rate of 5.4 children per woman, Burundi ranked as seventh country with the highest fertility rate in the world. Family planning is an effective way of achieving desirable family size, appropri...

    Authors: Sonia Hakizimana and Emmanuel Nene Odjidja

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:94

    Content type: Research

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  43. In 2015, a quality improvement project of childbirth care called Adequate Childbirth Project (“Projeto Parto Adequado”- PPA) was implemented in Brazilian public and private hospitals, aiming to improve the qua...

    Authors: Rosa Maria Soares Madeira Domingues, Paula Mendes Luz, Barbara Vasques da Silva Ayres, Jacqueline Alves Torres and Maria do Carmo Leal

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:93

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

  44. During childbirth, complications may arise which necessitate an expedited delivery of the fetus. One option is instrumental assistance (forceps or a vacuum-cup), which, if used with skill and sensitivity, can ...

    Authors: Claire Feeley, Nicola Crossland, Ana Pila Betran, Andrew Weeks, Soo Downe and Carol Kingdon

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:92

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  45. A growing body of evidence indicates that some people seek options to terminate a pregnancy without medical assistance, but experiences doing so have largely been documented only among people accessing a clin...

    Authors: Sarah Raifman, Lauren Ralph, M. Antonia Biggs and Daniel Grossman

    Citation: Reproductive Health 2021 18:91

    Content type: Research

    Published on:

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