Loredo-Abdala A, Vargas-Campuzano E, Casas-Munoz A, Gonzalez-Corona J, Gutierrez-Leyva CJ. Adolescent pregnancy: its causes and repercussions in the dyad. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. 2017;55(2):223–9.
Pinto ESJL, Surita FG. Pregnancy in adolescence - a challenge beyond public health policies. Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2017;39(2):41–3.
WHO. Adolescent pregnancy. Fact sheet. World Health Organization, 2020 31 January 2020. Report No.
Pérez MM, Barquero ML, Sánchez ML, De L. Los Rios Gestoso GTR, Aso CM, et al. CONSEQUENCES OF TEEN PREGNANCY.
Nove A, Matthews Z, Neal S, Camacho AV. Maternal mortality in adolescents compared with women of other ages: evidence from 144 countries. Lancet Glob Health. 2014;2(3):e155–e64.
Finlay JE, Norton MK, Guevara IM. Adolescent fertility and child health: the interaction of maternal age, parity and birth intervals in determining child health outcomes. International Journal of Child Health and Nutrition. 2017;6(1):16–33.
Coleman PK. Resolution of unwanted pregnancy during adolescence through abortion versus childbirth: individual and family predictors and psychological consequences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2006;35(6):903–11.
Chen X-K, Wen SW, Fleming N, Demissie K, Rhoads GG, Walker M. Teenage pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: a large population based retrospective cohort study. Int J Epidemiol. 2007;36(2):368–73.
Conde-Agudelo A, Rosas-Bermúdez A, Kafury-Goeta AC. Birth spacing and risk of adverse perinatal outcomes: a meta-analysis. Jama. 2006;295(15):1809–23.
Mollborn S. Teenage mothers today: what we know and how it matters. Child Dev Perspect. 2017;11(1):63–9.
Conde-Agudelo A, Belizan JM, Lammers C. Maternal-perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with adolescent pregnancy in Latin America: cross-sectional study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192(2):342–9.
Neal S, Matthews Z, Frost M, Fogstad H, Camacho AV, Laski L. Childbearing in adolescents aged 12-15 years in low resource countries: a neglected issue. New estimates from demographic and household surveys in 42 countries. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012;91(9):1114–8.
Organization WH. Adolescent Pregnancy: Factsheet No 364.[Online] Available from: http://www.who. int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs364/en. Accessed; 2014.
Timæus IM, Moultrie TA. Teenage childbearing and educational attainment in South Africa. Stud Fam Plan. 2015;46(2):143–60.
Temmerman M. Adolescent mothers: too young to be neglected. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health. 2017;1(3):164–6.
UBOS. Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2016. Kampala, Uganda and Rockville, Maryland, USA: UBOS and ICF, 2018 2018. Report No.
Uganda Bureau of Statistics and Macro International Inc. Uganda Demogrpahic and health Survey 2006. Calverton, Maryland, USA: UBOS and Macro International Inc.; 2007.
Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS) and ICF International Inc. Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Kampala, Uganda : UBOS and Claverton, Maryland: ICF International Inc. : UBOS, 2012.
Chandra-Mouli V, Lane C, Wong S. What does not work in adolescent sexual and reproductive health: a review of evidence on interventions commonly accepted as best practices. Global Health: Science and Practice. 2015;3(3):333–40.
Odimegwu C, Mkwananzi S. Factors associated with teen pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a multi-country cross-sectional study. Afr J Reprod Health. 2016;20(3):94–107.
Maswikwa B, Richter L, Kaufman J, Nandi A. Minimum marriage age Laws and the prevalence of child marriage and adolescent birth: evidence from sub-Saharan Africa. Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2015;41(2):58–68.
Grogan L. Universal primary education and school entry in Uganda. J Afr Econ. 2009;18(2):183–211.
Tamale SR. How old is old enough? Defilement law and the age of consent in Uganda. East African Journal of Peace and Human Rights. 2001;7(1):82–100.
Arube-Wani J, Jitta J, Ssengooba LM. 10. Adolescent-Friendly Health Services in Uganda. Promoting adolescent sexual and reproductive health in east and southern Africa. 2008:214.
Yakubu I, Salisu WJ. Determinants of adolescent pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. Reprod Health. 2018;15(1):15.
Zhang Y. Urban-rural literacy gaps in sub-Saharan Africa: the roles of socioeconomic status and school quality. Comp Educ Rev. 2006;50(4):581–602.
Maconachie R, Hilson G. Re-thinking the child labor “problem” in rural sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Sierra Leone’s half shovels. World Dev. 2016;78:136–47.
Wodon Q, Nguyen MC, Tsimpo C. Child marriage, education, and Agency in Uganda. Fem Econ. 2016;22(1):54–79.
Benova L, Dennis ML, Lange IL, Campbell OMR, Waiswa P, Haemmerli M, et al. Two decades of antenatal and delivery care in Uganda: a cross-sectional study using demographic and health surveys. BMC Health Serv Res. 2018;18(1):758.
Barros AJ, Hirakata VN. Alternatives for logistic regression in cross-sectional studies: an empirical comparison of models that directly estimate the prevalence ratio. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2003;3(1):21.
Kabagenyi A, Kakande P, Owayezu V. Demand for family planning among poor women in Uganda: further analysis of the demographic and health surveys. ICF: Rockville, Maryland, USA; 2019.
Muhanguzi FK, Bantebya-Kyomuhendo G, Watson C. Social institutions as mediating sites for changing gender norms: nurturing girl’s resilience to child marriage in Uganda. Agenda. 2017;31(2):109–19.
Nishimura M, Yamano T. Sasaoka Y. Impacts of the universal primary education policy on educational attainment and private costs in rural Uganda international Journal of Educational development. 2008;28(2):161–75.
Behrman JA, Peterman A, Palermo T. Does keeping adolescent girls in school protect against sexual violence? Quasi-experimental evidence from east and southern Africa. J Adolesc Health. 2017;60(2):184–90.
Kikulwe D, Walakira EJ, Ssebikindu L, Ssebikindu J, Muhangi D, Matovu F. Education for All: Reflections on the Schooling Status for the Girl Child in Uganda. Child Abuse and Neglect in Uganda: Springer; 2017. p. 297–310.
Kabagenyi A, Reid A, Rutaremwa G, Atuyambe LM, Ntozi JP. Has Uganda experienced any stalled fertility transitions? Reflecting on the last four decades (1973-2011). Fertil Res Pract. 2015;1(14):1–10.
Neal SE, Chandra-Mouli V, Chou D. Adolescent first births in East Africa: disaggregating characteristics, trends and determinants. Reprod Health. 2015;12(1):13.
Wado YD, Sully EA, Mumah JN. Pregnancy and early motherhood among adolescents in five east African countries: a multi-level analysis of risk and protective factors. BMC pregnancy and childbirth. 2019;19(1):59.
Neal S, Ruktanonchai C, Chandra-Mouli V, Matthews Z, Tatem AJ. Mapping adolescent first births within three east African countries using data from demographic and health surveys: exploring geospatial methods to inform policy. Reprod Health. 2016;13(1):98.
Gideon R. Factors associated with adolescent pregnancy and fertility in Uganda: analysis of the 2011 demographic and health survey data. American Journal of Sociological Research. 2013;3(2):30–5.
Kabagenyi A, Habaasa G, Rutaremwa G. Low Contraceptive Use among Young Females in Uganda: Does Birth History and Age at Birth have an Influence? Analysis of 2011 Demographic and Health Survey. Journal of contraceptive studies. 2016;1(1).
Radovich E, Dennis ML, Wong KL, Ali M, Lynch CA, Cleland J, et al. Who meets the contraceptive needs of young women in sub-Saharan Africa? J Adolesc Health. 2018;62(3):273–80.
Alam N, Hajizadeh M, Dumont A, Fournier P. Inequalities in maternal health care utilization in sub-Saharan African countries: a multiyear and multi-country analysis. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0120922.
Mulkeen A, Chen D. Teachers for rural schools: experiences in Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Uganda: the World Bank; 2008.
United Nations. World Fertility 2019: Early and later childbearing among adolescent women. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division 2020.
Sedgh G, Finer LB, Bankole A, Eilers MA, Singh S. Adolescent pregnancy, birth, and abortion rates across countries: levels and recent trends. J Adolesc Health. 2015;56(2):223–30.
Cook SM, Cameron ST. Social issues of teenage pregnancy. Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine. 2015;25(9):243–8.
Leftwich HK, Alves MVO. Adolescent Pregnancy. Pediatr Clin N Am. 2017;64(2):381–8.
<Conceptions in England and Wales 2014.pdf>.
Kearney MS, Levine PB. Investigating recent trends in the U.S. teen birth rate. Journal of Health Economics. 2015;41(Supplement C):15–29.
Lindberg L, Santelli J, Desai S. Understanding the decline in adolescent fertility in the United States, 2007–2012. J Adolesc Health. 2016;59(5):577–83.
Maravilla JC, Betts KS, Couto e Cruz C, Alati R. Factors influencing repeated teenage pregnancy: a review and meta-analysis. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology.217(5):527–45.e31.
Burke HM, Santo LD, Bernholc A, Akol A, Chen M. Correlates of rapid repeat pregnancy among adolescents and young women in Uganda. Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2018;44(1):11–8.
Ninsiima AB, Leye E, Michielsen K, Kemigisha E, Nyakato VN, Coene G. “Girls Have More Challenges; They Need to Be Locked Up”: A Qualitative Study of Gender Norms and the Sexuality of Young Adolescents in Uganda. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2018;15(2):193.
Odimegwu C, Frade S. The influence of adolescent age at first union on physical intimate partner violence and fertility in Uganda: A path analysis. South African Journal of Child Health. 2018;12(SPE):s51-s6.
Kaphagawani NCC. Risk factors for unwanted/unplanned teenage pregnancy in Zomba District, Malawi; 2006.
Christofides NJ, Jewkes RK, Dunkle KL, McCarty F, Shai NJ, Nduna M, et al. Risk factors for unplanned and unwanted teenage pregnancies occurring over two years of follow-up among a cohort of young south African women. Glob Health Action. 2014;7(1):23719.
Agadjanian V, Yabiku ST. Religious affiliation and fertility in a sub-Saharan context: dynamic and lifetime perspectives. Popul Res Policy Rev. 2014;33(5):673–91.
Chung HW, Kim EM, Lee J-E. Comprehensive understanding of risk and protective factors related to adolescent pregnancy in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. J Adolesc. 2018;69:180–8.
Ayo AS, Adeniyi FF, Ayodeji AM. Regional differences in adolescent childbearing in Nigeria. Journal of Population and Social Studies [JPSS]. 2016;24(2):101–16.
Alemayehu T, Haider J, Habte D. Determinants of adolescent fertility in Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development. 2010;24(1).
Van Enk W, Gorissen W, Van Enk A. Teenage pregnancy and ethnicity in the Netherlands: frequency and obstetric outcome. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2000;5(1):77–84.
Neal SE, Hosegood V. How reliable are reports of early adolescent reproductive and sexual health events in demographic and health surveys? Int Perspect Sex Reprod Health. 2015;41(4):210–7.
Nzabona A, Asiimwe JB, Kakuba C, Tuyiragize R, Mushomi J. Correlates of youth internal migration and employment in Uganda. African Population Studies. 2019;33(1).
Uganda Bureau of Statistics 2016. The National Population and housing census 2014-Main report. Kampala, Uganda, 2016.